Werewolves are More Realistic than the Hulk | Because Science Footnotes

♪ Almost festive ♪ ♪ Not Christmas song ♪ – There’s so much concrete
in the Hoover Dam. Do you know how much? I could give you like seven digit figures and other little tidbits,
but I don’t think any of it would really hit home. The concrete in the Hoover Dam. There’s so much of it
that if the engineers of the Hoover Dam let it cool by itself, concrete when it cures
releases a lot of heat, just part of the chemical reaction. If they let it proceed naturally, they estimated that it
would have taken 125 years to cool down, so instead
they installed a system of cooling water pipes
throughout the Hoover Dam that made the process go a lot quicker. But for the sheer volume of
concrete in the Hoover Dam, which you are seeing here now, with that amount of
concrete you could pave a 16 foot wide highway from San Francisco to New York. Eh, I’m hoovering over here. What a feat of engineering. With many feet of engineering. (banging) (upbeat music) Hello, and welcome to
another edition of Footnotes, the companion show to Because Science where I take all of your
comments, questions, and corrections and I put
some cooling pipes into them, fact pipes. Let me tell you what’s coming
up next on this channel, hint, argh! But getting right down to it, in the last episode of Because Science, we were tryin’ to figure
out what might be inside an actual super serum that
would be able to take you from zero to hero, or Chris Evans to Chris Heavens. (angelic music) Don’t you shake your head at me. I suggested a number of changes that a super serum could
make, mostly genetic, in partnership with Novaris, and they could possibly lead to… Extra strength, extra stamina,
all that sort of good stuff. You can watch the episode on
YouTube if you haven’t yet, but what did you have to say? Our first comment comes
from MrStreetly122 who says, “So this is really cool. I stumbled upon the MSTN gene,” the muscle gene we were talking about, “a while back and over time,
I’ve been compiling a list of genetic mutations that
have occurred in humans that could create a superhuman. Here’s my list. LPR5, a mutation resulting in eight times higher bone density, super sprinting gene, super sleeping gene, purple irises, and no body hair”. The last two were more or less vanity mutations for men, but Alexander’s genesis would be incredibly helpful for women. Here’s the thing. You have no idea what’s incredibly helpful for women, A. B, or two, Alexandria’s
genesis is not a real thing. Also the mutation with eight
times higher bone density, it means they can’t swim and
they got really thick bones, but they also have,
like, terrible diseases associated with that. It’s almost like you’re
missing information on a number of fronts about, like, more than half of the population. Crazy. (slurps) Next comment comes from Grant Baugh, who says the idea of serum being a virus was actually covered at
one point in the comics. I said that it wasn’t. In Issue 384, Cap received
a physical evaluation during which the doctor said, “The serum was not a mere drug, whose affects would have been metabolized and eliminated over time”,
which we said in the episode. “Instead, it must have been some sort of self-replicating virus”. So, indeed, as Grant points out, the comics did indeed
touch on the fact that whatever the super serum is, it can’t be just a simple chemical, because that will
eventually be metabolized and excreted by any super beefy body. So, I’m surprised. The comics actually got part of it right. I mean, they still have people in movies swinging on lightning, but you know, one step at a time. Our next comment comes from Rei Ayanami, who says, eight, who says, “I’ve actually been wondering
about the immediate results depicted when characters undergo their radical transformations. What would happen to your
muscles, bone, and skin, if your muscles just suddenly began to inflate to massive sizes?” This is one of my problems with The Hulk. A, or one, all that muscle mass just can’t come from anywhere. You can’t create or destroy
matter, so it’s like, people say alternate dimension, but what, what do you mean? Hulk’s getting fifth dimensional meat inserted into his body? How? Why? Doesn’t make sense. Secondly, or B, if you
were to increase in size all of Bruce Banner and
ripped your purple pants, but never off, (sexy seventies music), it would do terrible things to your body. Most people who go through these changes, lose a lot of weight,
gain a lot of muscle, when it’s in a short amount of time, they have radical physical changes that they have to deal with. If your muscles suddenly increased in size six or seven times, are your bones keeping up with this? Are your tendons? Are your ligaments? Are you just snapping
every bone in your body? That’s why I kind of like the depiction for werewolf transformation, and even more than something
like Hulk transformation, because you know, horror films, the good ones with really
good practical effects, when you see a werewolf
transform, it looks painful. Fingers are extending.
You hear cracking sounds. It’s this disgusting
full body horror show, as it should be. But it looks like it’s
affecting the body much more like how it probably
would affect the body. So, you heard it here first. Werewolves are more
realistic than The Hulk. But the nerdiest comment at the time I’m filming this episode, I’m giving to 1Lyennsey, who says, and shares a very personal story with us, who says, “Speaking on genetic disorders also being super powers,
I have a genetic condition that affects the collagen
production in my body. It’s called Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome. The disability part is
near-constant joint and organ pain, and a heart condition as a consequence of faulty collagen. The super power part, though, is a super flexibility. Because my ligaments
are like rubber bands, instead of inflexible steel cables, like they should be. My nickname in dance
classes was literally, ‘Elasti-Girl’, because I was
usually the most flexible, to the point I was
borderline contortionist. Now that I am in my twenties,
it’s more of a disability since I’m going into IT. My fingers are so flexible, and weak, that typing can be painful. My spine and my neck are so flexible, that my ribs dislocate and my spinal cord becomes inflamed for being stretched and compressed”. Whoot! “This syndrome sucks, but it was cool when I was younger. Basically, I’m a Belta from the Expanse because gravity affects my body more than the average person. On my cardiovascular system, it causes blood to pool in my legs because my veins and arteries stay expanding rather than contracting. This causes brain fog, dizziness, and eventual passing out from lack of blood to the brain. Abraham Lincoln had a related genetic connective tissue disorder called Marfan’s Syndrome, which made him super tall and strong. He was known for being
an amazing wrestler, with an incredible jaw line. But this condition is also why he had to walk with a
cane in his later years. Well, I think what we tried
to outline in the episode is that, yes, there are
ways for genetic changes to make you superhuman, but, obviously, they come with risks. They come with drawbacks. There are a number of knock on effects that are too simple to
cover in a ten minute video. And, number of you point
out the ethical implications of doing something like this, but, Lynnsey, thank you so much for sharing your personal story. I hope that wherever you are, whatever you’re doing right now, you are doing fantastically, and that you were once
Elasti-Girl, in your younger years. I think that’s kinda awesome. And do you know what
else is awesome, Lynnsey? You are definitely a super nerd. (hard guitar music) (twinkling keyboard) But of course, I’m not always right. So what did I get wrong last week? Oh, and I’m sure you
definitely want to correct me. A lot of stuff that I
say here in the void. And if you want to do so,
you want to be notified about when I put up them videos,
so make sure you’re liking, commenting, and subscribing, hitting that notification bell, so you know everything that I’m doing every step of the day for me. Our first correction comes from Kaya, and a number of you who say, “Most people can’t do three pull ups”. Why you calling me out like that, man? Because most people can’t- a lot of you seem to have issue with me saying, “most people
can’t do three pull ups”. I think it’s objectively true. If you base, just like, on
what we require of students, say, in the Presidential
Fitness Challenge, if you’re from the United States, you know what I’m talking about, they don’t require all that many. And most people, I used to train people in the gym, most people I find, cannot
do a single pull up. So, ayyyyyyuhhh, if anything, you’re just proving my point. Pull ups are really hard. Pull ups are really, really hard. That’s putting your entire body weight just on a few muscle groups here. You have to work very hard, and it’s not something to be ashamed of. It’s a very hard exercise. Most people can’t do three. Most people can’t even do one. It’s something you gotta train for, like anything in life. Darren Wood has a correction, who says, “The whole can’t get drunk because of crazy high metabolism thing always confused me. Surely Captain America
can get a bit buzzed”. I actually did an episode on this once. Just a second. I called it, How Much Can
Captain America Drink? It was published in July of 2016, Episode 93. And in that, I used the
blood alcohol content formula to calculate how much
Captain America could drink, how quickly to get buzzed, and drunk. And I did this because like what you said, metabolism is a factor. And in the first film, they say, he has a metabolism that
works four times faster than the average man, and because metabolism
is actually a factor, a variable in the blood
alcohol content equation, we can actually put times
four in the equation, and calculate how buzzed
old Steve can get. And what did I say? What did I say? #Capchug, alright… To get drunk, Captain America would need, because of his enhanced metabolism, to chug a gallon of beer
in less than five minutes. A gallon of beer. Or, a half a gallon of wine, or a pint of liquor in a minute. A pint of liquor in a minute, or an entire keg over twenty four hours. That guy likes to party. Ain’t no party like a Steve Rogers party, cause a Steve Rogers party technically lives to a hundred and twelve, then dies after Peggy does. Is that what happened? Who cares? Ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha. I never want to think about the logistics of that movie ever again. Our next correction comes from LanGista02, says, “Typical lab people used in the video, they
always wear safety glasses in a place where there’s
literally no danger to their eyes”. I’m only bringing this up because often when you have uh, what’s called in the biz, B roll, of scientists, they most often look very
much like scientists. They’re wearing lab coats, they’re wearing safety goggles. They have beakers, and you know, stuff, bunsen burners going, and I’m only bringing this up because I want to point out, scientists don’t look like that. Like yes, if you go into a lab where active work is being done, yeah, you can find safety
glasses and lab coats. But, for the most part, scientists look like everyone, of every race, color,
gender, sexual orientation, everything. Scientists are like everyone. They’re just a sampling of the population, and I think it’s time for the, you have to wear a lab coat or else no one will
think you’re a scientist, I think it’s time for that trope to die. It’s not entirely scientists’ fault. I will say from personal experience, that when TV shows, production companies, when they want to make a sciency thing, they will ask the science person to, hey, could you put on a
lab coat for this scene? Because you know, you’re a science person. It’s perpetuating the stereotype. And I think it’s time for it to end. Scientists look like everyone. Tweet at me, if you’re a scientist, with a selfie of yourself, with #thisiswhatascientistlookslike. Yeah. But the nerdiest correction, at the time of this video, I’m giving to two-time super nerd already, Jack Linde, or Lindy, who says, “Kyle, there
are two things you missed, and or, glossed over”. The second thing is ethics, and I did kinda gloss over this, because it wasn’t the
point of the episode, but it’s important to highlight here. So, ethics. “You glossed over by simply saying, if it’s to make super humans,
then we shouldn’t do it, but if it’s to save lives, we can do it. But you didn’t explain why, and that’s super important. The first obvious point of
ethics and gene editing, is the risk. Like I said,
CRISPR and other gene editing techniques aren’t a
hundred percent accurate. Most of the times they fail, they don’t make the necessary alterations. But they do sometimes make
an alteration to location at a spot other than
the intended sequence. Can you imagine what would happen if you were trying to swap out the genes that control red blood cell production in bone marrow, only to have your genes located in the middle of the genes that code for the productive
proteins for cell walls? You go from having a low
healthy blood cell count to having a high count of
unhealthy red blood cells. These risks are too much
for a healthy individual who’s just looking to get ripped”. This is very important. Doctors, scientists, medical researchers, in the name of science, can’t knowingly subject people to treatments, techniques, gene editing, that they know has some
substantial risk or unknown risk. It’s one thing to become
completely informed about what might happen to you, and then agree to undergo
some process or procedure. But, gene editing right
now, as hot as it is, is a field that’s still
relatively speaking, in its infancy. And so to impose that on people, just with the hopes that they get ripped, not to cure sickle cell
anemia, or what have you, that’s less of a medical imperative that would warrant this kind of risk. So right now, when things
are still in so much flux, when there is so much danger, it’s just unethical, and
Jack, for pointing that out, you are now joining an exclusive club. A three time super nerd. (hard rock music) Third. And now, moving right along to this week’s episode of Because Science, this week’s episode is ahhrrg, How Does Force Lightning Work? That’s right. In this week’s
episode of Because Science, we’re looking into the
powers of Palpitine, and other Sith Lords, to figure out how Force
lightning might work. How much power would it actually take? What would you have to do? Would that power be unlimited? No. But find out, this week, more of, eh. (Star Wars theme) But before we figure all of that out, please go watch the last episode. If you haven’t yet, all about, making a real super serum, and leave me your best,
nerdiest, comments, corrections, and questions at YouTube.com/becausescience, Facebook.com/becausescience, and @BecauseScience on
Instagram, and the Twitter. And don’t forget, it’s going
to be the holidays very soon. You’re going to be flying, you’re going to be driving, you’re going to be around a lot of people, more people than you’re usually around, so wash your hands. Sneeze bacteria can travel to basically every surface in the house in like, under two hours, if there’s a lot of people around. Wash your hands. And stop hugging your relatives. You can tell them it’s
for hygiene purposes. (upbeat electronic music)

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