Top 10 Knowledge Centers and Libraries That Were Tragically Destroyed

Throughout history, various civilizations
have created incredible centers of learning that have inevitably been destroyed by rampaging
barbarian hordes or some ?civilized? conquering army. Without back-ups or copy/paste buttons,
all that knowledge recorded on fragile paper, clay or tree bark was lost forever. Gone,
erased, with no chance of a recovery. Occasionally, a fragment of a library will surface somewhere
in the modern world but, more often that not, this splinter of knowledge only serves as
a reminder of just how much was lost. 10. Library of Alexandria The Library of Alexandria is the poster boy
for lost knowledge, yet we know very little about it or when it was destroyed. The Egyptian
city of Alexandria was founded in 331 BC by Alexander the Great, after he conquered the
country. After his death, one of his generals, Ptolemy, took control of the region and started
the Ptolemaic dynasty a series of kings and queens that would rule Egypt for hundreds
of years. Under this dynasty, the region and the city thrived and became a mecca of learning,
to the point where a huge library was constructed that contained hundreds of thousands of scrolls.
Thousands visited the library to study, learn and teach. This much everyone can agree on. It’s also about all anyone can agree on.
At some point, the library was destroyed; whether it was a single event, or drawn out
over centuries, has been lost in the fog of history. For a long time, it was thought that
Julius Caesar accidentally burnt it down while having his liaisons with the legendary Cleopatra.
Yet there are records of the library still existing after this event. In the 4th century,
Christian leader Theophilus became very upset that a giant collection of ?pagan? scrolls
existed in Alexandria, and he incited a mob to destroy it. Once again, this failed to
totally destroy the library. This was repeated again when Islam spread and conquered the
region under Caliph Omar, who again ordered pagan works to be destroyed. Historians still
can?t agree which event destroyed the library for good, but they can all agree it, and all
its fabled knowledge, does not exist now. 9. Glasney College The Cornish people of South Western England
are a distinct group who, up until the 15th century, had their own language that is now
seen as a bridge to what the British Isles looked like before Julius Caesar?s Roman invasion.
The Cornish language and culture centered on the Church-sponsored Glasney College in
Penryn, Cornwall. In terms of scholarship, it was a dam against assimilation of the Cornish
people into British culture. Disaster struck for Cornish culture when the
infamous King Henry VIII disbanded England?s monastery system in 1534, after declaring
himself the Supreme Head of the Church in England. Then in 1548, a decree was sent out
to not only destroy centers of Cornish learning, but all symbols of Cornish Roman Catholicism.
With their cultural artifacts and language centers gone, the Cornish rebelled against
further acts like the banning of Cornish in the Church. This led to a failed revolt, and
the death knell to the Cornish language and culture. 8. University of Alabama On December 18, 1820 planning started for
the creation of “The University of the State of Alabama.? It finally opened its doors to
students on April 18, 1831, and soon became a major center of learning. By the time the
Civil War broke out, it had one of the largest collections of books in the country. It also was famed for its legendary party
culture, which saw some of the greatest student debauchery of the young United States. It
got so bad that, in 1860, the University leadership successfully appealed to the government to
have the University changed to a military school, similar to West Point. This ultimately
doomed the school, as it was targeted by Union forces a few days before the South surrendered.
The school’s librarian meet the Union forces and, as they were torching the campus, begged
to let the library and its knowledge stand. The Yankee commander requested to his superiors
to spare the library, but they ordered him to raze everything. Just as troops started
to ignite the library, someone ran in and was able to save one book: an English translation
of?The Koran, published in Philadelphia in 1853. 7. Imperial Library of Constantinople Around 493, the Eastern half of the Roman
Empire watched as the Western Empire, while they somehow lived on. We call them the Byzantine
Empire, but they considered themselves Romans, so in their cities they stored and copied
the great works of the Greeks and the Romans. In the capital itself, the huge Imperial Library
of Constantinople stood. Every hundred or so years a fire would strike the city, but
the scrolls and books could usually be replaced. That all changed in 1204, when the marauding
Christian warriors of the Fourth Crusade sacked the city, stole its valuables, and torched
the rest. After the Crusaders left, the Byzantines were eventually able to take back and recreate
some of the Imperial Library but, in 1453, the city fell to the invading Ottoman armies,
and all that knowledge was lost forever. 6. Egypt Temple of Knowledge After Egypt gained its independence, it desperately
tried to control its heritage by stemming the massive flood of Egyptian artifacts flowing
out of the country to private and public collections around the world. They were eventually able
to set up a number of museums, including taking over the?Institut d’?gypte (Temple of Knowledge,)
which held hundreds of thousands of documents and manuscripts, some dating back to the 1500’s.
On December 17, 2011, during the uprising against Egyptian leader President Mubark,violent
protests spilled over into the Museum grounds, and a Molotov cocktail was thrown through
the window. Despite valiant attempts by bystanders to save the valuable works, only a fraction
could be carried out. The rest were destroyed by the flames. 5. The Jaffna Library The Jaffna Public Library was founded in the
1930’s, and within a few decades had grown to become one of the largest libraries in
Asia. As it grew, ancient texts — including such fragile items as palm leaf manuscripts
about the history of Sri Lanka — were moved into the library in order to safely store
and restore them. Unfortunately, the library stood in the northern Tamil section of Sri
Lanka, a region which, in the ’80s, was going through major upheaval. The minority
Hindu Tamils sought equality with the majority Buddhist Sinhalese population, a quest which
culminated on May 31, 1981. A political rally involving a popular Tamil party turned violent,
and three policemen were killed. It didn?t take long before Sinhalese government
forces struck out at any visible Tamil entity. Hindu temples were destroyed, people were
killed, and a drunken mob of police and Sinhalese people stormed and burnt down the Jaffna Library,
destroying all its contents. Soon after, a Tamil military insurgency and Sinhalese Government
forces would be involved in a decades-long war that would last until the last Tamil Tiger
force was destroyed in August of 2009. 4. Institut f?r Sexualwissenschaft The Institut f?r Sexualwissenschaft (variably
translated as the Institute of Sex Research, Institute of Sexology, Institute for Sexology
and Institute for the Science of Sexuality) was started right after World War I by Magnus
Hirschfeld, and located in Berlin Germany. The Institute was a pioneer in human sexuality,
and especially LGBT individuals. It was one of the first instances in the modern western
world where modern scientists confirmed that LGBT wasn?t a lifestyle choice, but something
people were born with. Tens of thousands of people visited it, and the Institute was able
to provide advice on STDs, contraception, and sex advice. Inside the library were thousands
of questionnaires about people?s sexual habits, a priceless record of Interwar German sexuality. Yet Hirschfeld and the Institute’s push
for LGBT rights saw the organization targeted by the Nazis. When Hitler took control in
1933, the leaders of the Institut f?r Sexualwissenschaft were arrested, and the building and all its
records were burnt to the ground. Homosexuals were sent to prison camps, and emblazoned
with pink triangles, much like the Jews wore the yellow Star of David. As a final insult,
after Allied forces liberated political prisoners, Jews and Gypsies, they required homosexuals
to stay behind bars, and serve out their Nazi sentences. 3. Nalanda Nalanda was one of the great universities
of the world, and survived for around 700 years, starting around 500 AD. Located in
what is now northeast India, the learning center attracted scholars from Tibet, China,
Greece, and Persia. A center of Buddhist learning, the University quickly became a target by
those who hoped to destroy Buddhist culture. In 1193, Turkish leader Bakhtiyar Khilji stormed
into the city, burned thousands of professors alive, and spent months burning each and every
last scroll in the city. Reports from the time tell of a pale smoke from all the parchments
hanging in the valley, which darkened the sky for months. The Turks succeeded in uprooting
Buddhism, which became virtually extinct in India. The destruction also plunged the area
into the Indian version of the Dark Ages, as all advanced knowledge of mathematics,
astronomy, alchemy, and anatomy was lost. 2. Maya Codices The Mayans of Central America have a rich
and complex civilization that produced the some of the largest pyramids in the world,
a prosperous trading network, and a written language that was in use from the third century
BC until the Spanish arrived. The Mayans used a variety of materials to write, before settling
on a medium of tree bark. Using this bark, they were able to record their civilization?s
knowledge and history in foldable books called Codices. The largest collection of these Codices
were located in the Yucatan, which was conquered by the Spanish Conquistadors in 1562. The
priest that accompanied the invading army was Spanish Bishop Diego de Landa, who ordered
all the Mayan books destroyed. Thousands of priceless volumes of Mayan life, history,
and culture were put to the torch as de Landa proclaimed, “We found a large number of
books in these characters and, as they contained nothing in which were not to be seen as superstition
and lies of the devil, we burned them all, which they (the Maya) regretted to an amazing
degree, and which caused them much affliction.” As the Conquistadors moved across Central
America, they systemically destroyed any Codice they came across. The last big library was
in Nojpet?n, Guatemala, which in 1697 became the last city conquered in the Americas. There
too, all Mayan books found were put to flame. Of the thousands of books in the Mayan civilization,
only three survived, which are held in European museums today. 1. House of Wisdom The ancient civilizations that inhabit what
is now Iraq were supporters of the arts, and supported fledgling ancient libraries across
the region. When the region fell under Islamic expansion, the conquering Arabs discovered
and celebrated this vast knowledge their Empire now held. A number of collections were created
that combined books from across the Islamic world. First, the collection was held in Damascus
and in 762, under the Caliph al-Mansur, the city of Baghdad was created. Government functions
and the library soon moved there. In Baghdad, the library flourished and became
known as the House of Wisdom, holding knowledge from Greek sources as well as printed and
translated works from the Eastern Kingdoms of China and India. However, from the East,
came Baghdad?s destruction. In the 13th century, Hulagu Khan and his Mongol horde conquered
everything in his path until he controlled most of Southwest Asia. When he came across
the borders of the Islamic Abbasid Caliphate, he sent envoys to their capital in Baghdad,
who were rebuffed by Baghdad?s ruler Caliph Al-Musta’sim. Incensed, the Mongols brushed
aside any resistance and were quickly at the gates of Baghdad, which they put under a two-month
siege before the city surrendered. The city was then sacked for a week, and the river
alternated between turning red from the blood of those killed, and black from all the books
that were thrown into the river. Hundreds of thousands of priceless wonders were destroyed,
and the sack of the city marked the end of the golden age of Islam.


  1. Russell Johnston

    December 8, 2018 at 4:52 pm

    Love this channel

  2. Ken Fulton {Baby Elder}

    December 8, 2018 at 4:53 pm

    Who still goes to the library?

  3. Mathieu Leader

    December 8, 2018 at 4:56 pm

    I bet the library of Alexandria will be on here

  4. Christel Headington

    December 8, 2018 at 5:12 pm

    10 should be #1,#3 should be #2,both contained knowledge from all the known cultures of their time, and multiple translations.

  5. holoholo haole no ka oi

    December 8, 2018 at 5:12 pm

    muslims ruin everything, everywhere

  6. Natal Kumar

    December 8, 2018 at 5:16 pm

    Genius Nalanda was primarily a Hindu University , don't listen to the leftists who spread propaganda.

  7. Subtle Gong

    December 8, 2018 at 5:24 pm

    Tamil! Tamil Dan! Tamil!

  8. Jared Quinney

    December 8, 2018 at 5:24 pm

    This is really cool.

  9. A22

    December 8, 2018 at 5:27 pm

    Ich bin stolz darauf, dass die Sozialistische Partei Deutschlands das Institut für Sexualwissenschaft zerstört hat…👏👏👏

  10. Stephen Doyle

    December 8, 2018 at 5:28 pm

    National Archive in Ireland was destroyed during the Irish Civil War. There were documents going back 700 years

  11. Em Jay

    December 8, 2018 at 5:29 pm

    Not to come off across as crass or blithe, but I imagine (perhaps incorrectly) that we lost information that is important from a social and historical perspective… But I doubt that we lost the cure for cancer or the resolution to Quantum Newtonian dilemma.

  12. Em Jay

    December 8, 2018 at 5:32 pm

    Who stops raping and pillaging to go burn some books in a boring old library? And what Commander would allow his charges to burn the knowledge that they certainly worked so hard to secure? Failure at all levels of management.

  13. Suvi-Tuuli Allan

    December 8, 2018 at 5:39 pm

    Don't forget Tumblr!

  14. Camilla Stacey

    December 8, 2018 at 5:47 pm

    I live just up the road from Glasney in Penryn. Strange to see this tiny town here.

  15. James Roark

    December 8, 2018 at 5:55 pm

    it is so sad that we who think we are the top of the food chain distroy knowlage without thought this is the greatest crime in history

  16. Brandyalla

    December 8, 2018 at 6:11 pm

    No mention of the National Museum of Brasil? It's so recent that I thought it was the impetus for writing this episode, but…nope :/

  17. jeremy debraccio

    December 8, 2018 at 6:19 pm

    Why do people down like things that… are objectionably not not likeable? You know?
    Are they down vote bots?

  18. Nym OneFourSix

    December 8, 2018 at 6:26 pm

    Under British law you just spoke about the Islamic conquering of Baghdad, this is now considered racism. We cannot even discuss historical fact.

  19. The Anadromous Life

    December 8, 2018 at 7:03 pm

    Does anyone seriously believe that most of our current digital knowledge won't be lost in a nanosecond someday?

  20. Dexter Koula

    December 8, 2018 at 7:13 pm

    Herschfield is burning slowly in hell

  21. Tom Bowers

    December 8, 2018 at 7:21 pm

    Cornwall forever in Cornish for those who aren't from this beautiful place

  22. Darrel Jones

    December 8, 2018 at 7:30 pm

    One worth noting, though it didn't prove as devastating as anything in this video: The Library of Congress, in the US capital of Washington DC and the largest library in the world, was among the landmarks burned by the British army during the War of 1812. Fortunately, several Americans (including former President Thomas Jefferson) gave new books to replace them.

  23. Ditch Bank Bandits

    December 8, 2018 at 7:52 pm

    This is the saddest video I’ve ever seen 😢

  24. Waco Muff

    December 8, 2018 at 8:14 pm

    It’s been told that 2/3 of the books at the University of Alabama Library hadn’t even been colored in.

  25. griffen98

    December 8, 2018 at 8:26 pm

    Thank you for another great video. I appreciate your work what it's straightforward and honest and not one-sided. It's a incredible amount of work you do

  26. drewpamon

    December 8, 2018 at 8:42 pm

    No mention of the British burning the library of Congress? Or the tragic fire that destroyed most of the military personnel records in 1973 making millions of veterans unable to prove their veteran status?

  27. Dazanar

    December 8, 2018 at 8:42 pm

    those mayan books should be in idk .. mexico.. or.. like….

  28. theflash3100

    December 8, 2018 at 9:57 pm


  29. Captain Anopheles

    December 8, 2018 at 10:12 pm

    It was Al-Ghazali and his proclamation that working with numbers was satanic that did for Arab learning. Not the Mongols.

    This is why the Turks burnt the Indian library.

  30. K ris

    December 8, 2018 at 10:18 pm

    Simon, I love ya, bro… but your channel is becoming WatchMojo

  31. parKb5

    December 8, 2018 at 10:38 pm

    It sounds like religion hates all books other than their so-called holy books. More proof that religion destroys everything. Who knows what ancient knowledge and human history that was lost forever because of ignorant religious zealots.

  32. Suna Grimmel

    December 8, 2018 at 11:13 pm

    Sadly Luxembourg doesn’t have a such old library since we were only founded in 963 🙂 but hey those documents still exist


    December 8, 2018 at 11:24 pm

    Ignorance, still a destroyer, very little knowledge escapes from its selfish grasp. Scientia potentia est: Knowledge is Power.

  34. LoveratLoves

    December 8, 2018 at 11:44 pm

    No surprise that in most cases it stems from the My religion is the one true religion mantra

  35. Mickey The maltipoo

    December 9, 2018 at 12:11 am

    Rinse and repeat

  36. Quince Kreb

    December 9, 2018 at 1:22 am

    Thank you, Simon, for your very informative and interesting videos on many historical events.

  37. annette fournier

    December 9, 2018 at 1:27 am


  38. wet Willie

    December 9, 2018 at 2:36 am

    Did you notice how the majority of these great libraries where destroyed as a result of religion you can't tell me that we wouldn't be much much much much more advanced without religion

  39. Nelson Ricardo

    December 9, 2018 at 2:50 am

    "Alabama" "major center of learning" There must be some miscommunication here…

  40. Robert Schlesinger

    December 9, 2018 at 4:12 am

    Excellent video on the tragic loss of many libraries with their countless unique manuscripts. There are several other great book and manuscript collections now lost and worth mentioning. The vast Yiddish literature, some extremely rare books, and unique incunabulae and manuscripts, destroyed by the Nazis from the mid-1930s to the mid-1940s. Also the writings found on Easter Island, burned by missionary priests. Only a a dozen or so wooden tablets survive. Another tragic loss of books and manuscripts occurred when the so-called founder of a somewhat unified China (nearly 1800 years ago) ordered not only all books in conflict with his thinking to be burned, but the authors and those knowledgeable of said books to be buried alive. This was a disaster, but Chin Shi Hwang (Wong) Di's dynasty fell shortly after his death and some books were re-written or came out of hiding. There are other examples, but your fine list is limited to ten examples. Finally, I should add that Mayan scholars are ferreting out any Mayan hieroglyphic manuscripts and have now found 8 or so, but some may be forgeries. Fortunately, De Lanza missed. some of the most informative Mayan inscriptions – that carved into the Mayan architecture.

  41. Ausie Gamer

    December 9, 2018 at 4:40 am

    Lucky I have audiobooks.

  42. Carlton B

    December 9, 2018 at 5:58 am

    Also, the destruction of the Public Records Office in Ireland during the Battle of Dublin in 1922. Many records of Ireland dating back 700 years were lost. Also, the burning of the Virginia archives during the Richmond Evacuation Fire in 1865. Many colonial records were lost. Also, the National Personnel Records Center fire of 1973, in Overland, Missouri. About 16 million U.S. service men records were lost. Without an Honorable Discharge certificate, many servicemen couldn't prove they served. A major loss to historians as well. Also, the burning of the Massachusetts Governor's Mansion by an angry mob in 1765. Many documents of early Massachusetts history were lost. Minor, but significant to Massachusetts and historians.

  43. John Spera

    December 9, 2018 at 8:53 am

    What a waste

  44. Katharine W

    December 9, 2018 at 9:06 am

    Whatever records there were for how those pyramids of Giza were built were probably put into the Library of Alexandria to be kept safe…

  45. MaidenCorp

    December 9, 2018 at 9:19 am

    "Mecca of knowledge" sounds very, very wrong.

  46. Nebojša Polomac

    December 9, 2018 at 9:19 am

    This could be easily top 100 list. For example, Serbian national library. It has been one of the first object bombed by the Nazis in April the 6th 1941. Many valuable books and manuscripts were burnt. It wasn't collateral, the STUKKA plans were aiming the building

  47. Mr K F

    December 9, 2018 at 9:39 am

    What a sad waste of human knowledge.

  48. Nyar 23

    December 9, 2018 at 10:09 am

    Love you Simon, but your pronunciation of German is utterly, utterly horrifying.

  49. LocalHeretic 1127

    December 9, 2018 at 10:49 am

    Knowledge is Power. Guard it well.

  50. Ankle Donna

    December 9, 2018 at 11:36 am

    The repudiation and destruction of knowledge is a frequent theme in human history. Such a movement is in full stride in the U.S.A. as a means of imposing Fascism on the population by Regressives, who preach that lies are truth and that religious dogma has more validity than scientific insight and discovery.

  51. ZombieEater

    December 9, 2018 at 11:55 am

    Faith in humanity is gone after watching this, all that knowledge lost, when will we learn? Still a great channel though.

  52. China Expat

    December 9, 2018 at 12:26 pm

    Knowledge and information destroyed by religion

  53. losgryfog

    December 9, 2018 at 12:29 pm

    This video upsets me

  54. China Expat

    December 9, 2018 at 12:38 pm

    We're not missing anything with the loss of the Cornish language. I heard it was corny

  55. China Expat

    December 9, 2018 at 12:45 pm

    I never really crossed over to hating Hitler until now learning that he destroyed the coolest institute

  56. Bodyboarding Chronicles

    December 9, 2018 at 1:17 pm

    Maya Books?

    Correction Maya Gold Tablets!
    Melted down for the crown.

    One TeM

  57. JD1010101110

    December 9, 2018 at 1:24 pm

    Caesar's invasion failed though. The Roman didn't conquer Britannia until nearly a century later

  58. Tom Daly

    December 9, 2018 at 1:38 pm

    Alexandria should be at the top

  59. spider879

    December 9, 2018 at 2:41 pm

    Library of Timbuktu said to have held 700,000 manuscripts, gutted by invading Moroccans in 1591, but all was not lost, the locals rescued many works, so it rightfully could not make the list as enough of the manuscripts survived to rebuild in modern times, but took another hit by Islamofacist a couple of yrs ago but still in grave danger.

  60. Ken Wagner

    December 9, 2018 at 3:35 pm

    Really, really sad video

  61. simpooishere

    December 9, 2018 at 3:39 pm

    The burning of Nalanda was the end of India's golden age.

  62. Christopher Hall

    December 9, 2018 at 3:43 pm

    just think where humanity might be if stupid/religious people didn't make all the decision throughout history

  63. John Bravehawk

    December 9, 2018 at 4:59 pm

    Thanks for the air quotes

  64. Blue Dude

    December 9, 2018 at 6:36 pm

    People destroy many things yet claim to be great. I still want knowledge and my own knowledge

  65. Odus Omo

    December 9, 2018 at 8:31 pm

    It is just an entertainment /educational list. No agenda here. If they don't get to it,I am sure they will make another top 10 list. It must be a sad way to live life seeing agenda and conspiracy in everything. It isn't that serious.

  66. Brendon W

    December 9, 2018 at 9:28 pm

    Were probably just all jealous others could read, and they could not…

  67. fxs 7

    December 10, 2018 at 2:02 am

    Those commericals are very annoying and distracting.

  68. Mark Garin

    December 10, 2018 at 4:10 am

    Guess the barbarians that destroyed the Mayan records would have been the Roman Catholic Church and/or the Spainish.?

  69. EarlFaulk

    December 10, 2018 at 4:16 am

    There's a conspiracy theory about the origins of Christianity that says the burning of the library at Alexandria was meant to cover up the real origins of Christianity. Since most of the Therapeutan schools had left their papers behind in said libraries. Therapeutan schools are called "Christ" schools by scholars.
    According to this idea the Archbishop Chrystosym was responsible for it and even boasted when he said that all traces of antiquity have been wiped away.

  70. Matt McLeod

    December 10, 2018 at 5:54 am

    These are hard to watch honestly its brutal how destructive a group of ignorant people can be..

  71. Victor Aguilar

    December 10, 2018 at 6:05 am

    I feel sorry for the library ancient!😢 😭

  72. Arthur Van Rodds

    December 10, 2018 at 2:38 pm

    Religion is a disease

  73. J Shankle

    December 10, 2018 at 4:23 pm

    At 7:00 , not confirmed,, hate when an opinion is stuck between facts,

  74. Alex Franco

    December 15, 2018 at 3:31 am

    As an atheist it sounds odd that I desperately hope that there is a terrible hell for people who destroy centers of knowledge

  75. MIYO.

    December 20, 2018 at 8:23 am

    The Institut für Sexualwissenschaften also provided gender reassignment therapy and surgery for trans people.

  76. Dre B

    December 21, 2018 at 11:35 am

    Roll tide!! but I'm a Auburn fan. @number 8

  77. Anirban Ghosh

    December 23, 2018 at 4:16 am

    What about Taxila

  78. digapygmy70

    December 23, 2018 at 7:25 am

    Simon, it may be a small thing, but thanks for taking the time to highlight the atrocities the Nazis committed against LGBT peoples

  79. NewhamMatt

    December 24, 2018 at 1:05 pm

    Did any of these places hold those missing episodes of Doctor Who?

  80. Emil Andreasson

    December 26, 2018 at 5:31 pm

    #4 kinda sounds like a Pornsite but ok.

  81. calska140

    December 27, 2018 at 7:57 pm

    Urge to kill rising

  82. Dianne Hale

    December 29, 2018 at 12:15 am

    Where would mankind be today, if none of these libraries had been destroyed. 😟

  83. RealmRabbit

    January 8, 2019 at 6:49 am

    Ehh… Can't blame Caesar too much for the Library of Alexandria damage since it was kind of unintentional and kind of caused by how he angered a ton of Egyptians who Cleopatra was trying to have overthrown… He was in a tight spot at the time being trapped in a city and surrounded on all sides by enemies…

  84. Ekim Yazici

    January 12, 2019 at 2:14 pm

    Simon, oh Simon…..pretty please with sugar and spices……could you do a video dedicated to the Library of Alexandria? tia

  85. BUX BE

    January 13, 2019 at 10:10 am

    Any political entity and their supporters that destroys knowledge define they are not leaders.

    What gets me is through all your videos, why are people so stupid to support not just politics, but the frameworks that bring these losers into power?

    So stupid.

  86. Mr. Fox

    February 22, 2019 at 10:47 pm

    This Video Lesson: Always make a backups.

  87. Liz G

    March 1, 2019 at 8:26 pm

    This episode made my library card scream in agony and my soul writhes in anguish. Humans have been SO stupid in the name of conquest and religion. I can't see how we deserve to exist as a species.

  88. Mishell Knoess

    March 2, 2019 at 7:25 am

    The singular form of "codices" is "codex." It's Latin, like the plural of "index" is "indices" and "vortex" is "vortices."

  89. Nick Tarry

    April 6, 2019 at 10:48 am

    If you're going to destroy somewhere surely save the books etc first. Even if it's not to save it just because you should then all that knowledge in your hands has to be useful.

  90. Sam Invincible

    July 17, 2019 at 3:52 am

    Should digitalise all work now

  91. J R

    July 21, 2019 at 11:14 am

    Jaffna library in srilanka was burnt down by srilankan govt so they can re write a history of their own choice. Jaffna library was the biggest in south east Asia in terms of literature. It became a repository of archival materials. Hence the govt planned to burn down
    There is a saying “destroy their history first then destroying them”

  92. Adam Bartlett

    July 30, 2019 at 7:27 pm

    This & other matters are why it drives nuts how we are abdicating our collective duty to preserve knowledge & accurately understand our collective histories.

    This is among a myriad of reasons why I argue each government has an obligation to properly establish & operate advanced educational systems that among other pieces operate required to do as much.


  93. Dern Vader

    August 3, 2019 at 3:06 pm

    It’s ironic that the devil didn’t exist in America until the Catholics brought themselves… they being the devils. I hope they are all suffering in hell…

  94. warlandpaint

    October 10, 2019 at 4:04 pm

    You forgot jagadala vikramsila sompura puspgiri ..etc not only Nalanda

  95. Fred C. Wilson III

    October 21, 2019 at 5:20 pm

    Now I can readily understand why the world's intellectuals despise governments and religion…for shame.

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