The Four Great Discoveries of Modern Science That Prove God Exists – Program 1


>>ANNOUNCER: TODAY, WHAT ARE THE FOUR GREAT DISCOVERIES OF MODERN SCIENCE THAT PROVE GOD EXISTS? THE FIRST GREAT DISCOVERY OF MODERN SCIENCE IS THAT THE UNIVERSE HAD A BEGINNING. WHERE DID IT COME FROM? HISTORIAN OF SCIENCE FRED BURNHAM HAS WRITTEN, “THE GOD HYPOTHESIS IS NOW A MORE PERSUASIVE AND RESPECTABLE HYPOTHESIS THAN AT ANY TIME IN THE LAST 100 YEARS.” THE SECOND GREAT SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERY IS THAT SPACE AND TIME ALSO HAD A BEGINNING. THIS DISCOVERY DEMANDS AN EXPLANATION. IT CALLS FOR A TRANSCENDENT CAUSE BEYOND THE UNIVERSE ITSELF. THE THIRD GREAT DISCOVERY OF MODERN SCIENCE IS THAT THE LAWS AND CONSTANTS OF THE UNIVERSE HAVE BEEN FINE TUNED FOR HUMAN LIFE TO EXIST. AS PHYSICIST FRED HOYLE HAS WRITTEN, “A COMMONSENSE INTERPRETATION OF THE EVIDENCE SUGGESTS A SUPER INTELLECT HAS MONKEY’D WITH PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY AS WELL AS BIOLOGY TO MAKE LIFE POSSIBLE.” THE FOURTH GREAT DISCOVERY OF MODERN SCIENCE IS THE DIGITAL CODE EMBEDDED IN THE DNA MOLECULE IN EVERY HUMAN CELL. THE 3 BILLION CHARACTERS OF PRECISE INFORMATION IN THE DIGITAL CODE INSTRUCT THE CELL HOW TO BUILD COMPLEX MOLECULES TO DO THE WORK SO THE CELL CAN STAY ALIVE. WHERE DID THIS SPECIFIED INFORMATION COME FROM? IT IS COMPELLING EVIDENCE OF AN INTELLIGENT DESIGNER FOR THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN LIFE. MY GUEST TODAY WHO WILL EXPLAIN THESE FOUR GREAT SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES IS DR. STEPHEN MEYER, WHO RECEIVED HIS PHD IN THE PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE FROM CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY. HE IS CO-FOUNDER OF THE INTELLIGENT DESIGN MOVEMENT IN THE WORLD AND A SENIOR FELLOW AT THE DISCOVERY INSTITUTE. WE INVITE YOU TO JOIN US FOR THIS SPECIAL EDITION OF THE JOHN ANKERBERG SHOW.>>ANKERBERG: WELCOME TO
OUR PROGRAM, WE’RE TALKING WITH DR. STEPHEN MEYER, PHILOSOPHER
OF SCIENCE, WHO GOT HIS PH.D AT CAMBRIDGE, IN ENGLAND. HE’S WRITTEN A BESTSELLING BOOK,
SIGNATURE IN THE CELL THAT WE’VE BEEN LOOKING AT IN PAST
PROGRAMS, “DNA AND THE EVIDENCE FOR INTELLIGENT DESIGN.” AND WHAT WE HAVE SEEN IS THAT IF
YOU LOOK AT THE CELL, YOU’VE GOT TRILLIONS OF CELLS IN YOUR BODY,
THOSE CELLS ARE SO FILLED WITH INFORMATION, AND WE’VE LOOKED AT
SOME OF THAT INFORMATION AND THAT SCREAMS FOR AN INTELLIGENT
DESIGNER. THAT’S WHAT THE EVIDENCE SHOWS WHEN YOU LOOK
THROUGH THE MICROSCOPE. WHEN YOU LOOK THROUGH THE TELESCOPE,
WHICH IS WHERE WE’RE GOING NOW, I THINK YOU’RE GOING TO SEE
DESIGN THERE AS WELL. BUT THAT’S NOT THE WORLDVIEW THAT’S AT
LARGE. WE’VE GOT NEW ATHEISTS LIKE RICHARD DAWKINS, WHO WROTE
THE GOD DELUSION, CHRISTOPHER HITCHENS, GOD IS NOT GREAT,
SAM HARRIS, THE END OF FAITH, AND OTHERS. RICHARD DAWKINS SAID
EVERYTHING, WHETHER HERE OR OTHER WORLDS, WHERE YOU SEE
INTELLIGENT DESIGN, IT’S NOT REALLY AN INTELLIGENT DESIGNER
THAT’S DOING IT. THERE IS NO INTELLIGENCE OUT THERE,
IT’S AN ILLUSION. NOW, STEPHEN, WHEN YOU WERE WORKING ON
YOUR PH.D. AT CAMBRIDGE, YOU INVESTIGATED THAT WORLDVIEW
AND COMPARED IT TO HOW SCIENCE ACTUALLY STARTED. TALK ABOUT THAT.>>MEYER: WELL, IT’S REALLY BEEN
KIND OF A LIFE-LONG JOURNEY INVESTIGATING THESE BIG
QUESTIONS AND THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SCIENCE AND THE LARGER
WORLDVIEWS THAT WE HUMANS FORMULATE TO MAKE SENSE OF
OUR EXPERIENCE. AND WHAT DAWKINS IS SAYING IS THAT SCIENCE,
PROPERLY UNDERSTOOD, UNDERMINES BELIEF IN GOD, IT CHALLENGES
BELIEF IN GOD. AND HIS ARGUMENT RUNS SOMETHING LIKE THIS: HE SAYS THAT THE STRONGEST ARGUMENT FOR BELIEVING IN GOD WAS ALWAYS THE ARGUMENT FROM DESIGN. WHEN DARWIN CAME ALONG, WE CAME TO UNDERSTAND THAT THERE IS NO DESIGN IN NATURE, ONLY THE ILLUSION OR THE APPEARANCE OF DESIGN. AND THEREFORE BELIEF IN GOD IS
TANTAMOUNT TO A DELUSION, AND THAT’S THE TITLE OF HIS FAMOUS
BOOK, THE GOD DELUSION. WHAT STRIKES ME ABOUT THAT IS
JUST HOW AT ODDS HIS PERSPECTIVE IS WITH THE PERSPECTIVE OF
THE SCIENTISTS WHO ACTUALLY FOUNDED WHAT WE CALL MODERN
SCIENCE. IF WE GO BACK TO THE PERIOD OF NEWTON AND KEPLER
AND BOYLE AND GALILEO AND COPERNICUS, THE PERIOD THAT
HISTORIANS OF SCIENCE CALL “THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION,”
THE CONCEPT OF DESIGN, INTELLIGENT DESIGN, WAS
ACTUALLY PART OF THE FOUNDATION OF THE WHOLE SCIENTIFIC
ENTERPRISE. THE SCIENTISTS AT THE TIME AT THAT TIME, HAD A WATCH-WORD
OR A KIND OF A MOTTO AND IT WAS THE IDEA OF “INTELLIGIBILITY.” THEY BELIEVED THAT THEY COULD
STUDY NATURE AND MAKE SENSE OF IT BECAUSE IT WAS INTELLIGIBLE
TO THE HUMAN MIND. WHY? BECAUSE IT HAD BEEN DESIGNED BY A RATIONAL INTELLECT, NAMELY IN THEIR VIEW, THE JUDEO-CHRISTIAN GOD.>>ANKERBERG: GIVE ME A FEW EXAMPLES.>>MEYER: WELL, THERE ARE MANY SCIENTISTS WHO HAD THIS PERSPECTIVE. BUT TAKE, FOR EXAMPLE, THE FOUNDER OF MODERN BIOLOGY, JOHN RAY, IN HIS BOOK, IT WAS ACTUALLY TITLED THE WISDOM OF GOD MANIFESTED
IN THE WORKS OF CREATION, WHICH WAS A PARAPHRASE OF A PASSAGE
IN THE BOOK OF ROMANS, IN THE BIBLE, THAT AFFIRMS THAT FROM THE THINGS THAT ARE MADE, THE UNSEEN QUALITIES OF THE CREATOR CAN BE KNOWN, INCLUDING HIS WISDOM. YOU FIND THIS PERSPECTIVE IN PHYSICS AS WELL. IN FACT IT IS A WHOLE
SERIES OF SCIENTISTS THAT EXPRESS THIS. JOHANNES KEPLER
SAID THAT, “WE, AS SCIENTISTS, HAVE THE HIGH CALLING OF
THINKING GOD’S THOUGHTS AFTER HIM.” WHAT ARE WE DOING? WE’RE PERCEIVING THE DESIGN,
THE ORDER, THE STRUCTURE THAT HE PUT INTO THE UNIVERSE,
THE MATHEMATICAL HARMONY THAT WAS PUT INTO THE UNIVERSE. THAT WAS KEPLER’S PERSPECTIVE. I THINK THIS PERSPECTIVE
REACHED, IN A SENSE, A KIND OF MAGISTERIAL EPITOME IN THE WORKS
OF NEWTON. HE WROTE IN BOTH THE OPTICKS, HIS FAMOUS WORK
ON THE EYE AND LIGHT, AND IN HIS MOST FAMOUS WORK OF ALL,
THE PRINCIPIA, HE MADE DESIGN ARGUMENTS. MANY SCIENTISTS
ASSUMED DESIGN, NEWTON WANTED TO ESTABLISH IT BY THE EVIDENCE
BASED UPON WHAT YOU MIGHT CALL “THE FINE-TUNING OF
THE ARRANGEMENT OF THE PLANETS IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM.” HE WAS
AWARE THAT GRAVITY PROVIDED A FORCE THAT WAS BEING HARNESSED
TO KEEP EVERYTHING GOING, BUT HE ALSO REALIZED THAT THE FORCES
OF GRAVITY THAT WERE IN PLAY FROM ONE PLANET TO ANOTHER,
AND THE SUN TO THE DIFFERENT PLANETS, WERE SO COMPLICATED
THAT IT WAS VERY DIFFICULT TO IMAGINE HOW YOU COULD GET
ALL THOSE FORCES TO BALANCE TO MAINTAIN A STABLE ORBIT.
SO IN THE PRINCIPIA, HE ACTUALLY ARGUES THAT THE BEST EXPLANATION
OF THAT FINE-TUNING OF THE PLANETARY CONFIGURATION
IS THE DESIGN OF AN INTELLIGENT AND POWERFUL BEING, WITH
A CAPITAL “B”. LET ME READ YOU THE QUOTE, IT’S VERY ELEGANTLY
STATED, HE SAYS, “THOUGH THESE BODIES MAY INDEED CONTINUE IN
THEIR ORBITS BY THE MERE LAWS OF GRAVITY, YET THEY COULD BY
NO MEANS HAVE FIRST DERIVED THE REGULAR POSITION OF
THE ORBITS THEMSELVES FROM THOSE LAWS.” HE’S TALKING ABOUT WHAT
PHYSICISTS TODAY CALL “INITIAL CONDITIONS”; THEY’RE FINELY
TUNED TO ALLOW FOR THIS SYSTEM TO BE STABLE. “THUS THIS MOST
BEAUTIFUL SYSTEM OF THE SUN, COMETS, AND PLANETS COULD ONLY
PROCEED FROM THE COUNSEL AND DOMINION OF AN INTELLIGENT AND
POWERFUL BEING.” THIS IS NEWTON’S ARGUMENT IN WHAT IS
ARGUABLY ONE OF THE GREATEST WORKS OF PHYSICS EVER WRITTEN. IT’S RIGHT IN THE STRUCTURE OF
HIS CASE. SO, IT RAISES, FOR ME, A KIND OF CURIOUS QUESTION WHEN
I LISTEN TO DAWKINS, WHICH IS, HOW DO WE GET FROM NEWTON AND
KEPLER AND GALILEO AND COPERNICUS, FROM THOSE GUYS,
WITH THEIR PERSPECTIVE THAT DESIGN IS NOT ONLY NECESSARY
FOR DOING SCIENCE BUT EVIDENT IN THE NATURAL WORLD, TO THESE
MODERN NEW ATHEISTS WHO SAY THAT SCIENCE HAS SHOWN THERE’S
NO DESIGN AND THEREFORE BELIEF IN GOD IS DELUSIONAL?>>ANKERBERG: ALRIGHT, STEPHEN,
LET’S ANSWER THAT QUESTION, HOW DID WE GET FROM
NEWTON TO DAWKINS?>>MEYER: IT REALLY IS THE STORY
OF 19TH CENTURY SCIENCE AND WHAT BEGAN TO CHANGE. THERE’S… THE FIRST PART OF IT HAS TO DO
WITH A MAN NAMED LAPLACE. HE WAS A FRENCH PHYSICIST WHO WANTED
TO SHOW THAT YOU COULD DO WHAT NEWTON WHAT SAID YOU COULDN’T
DO, WHICH WAS EXPLAIN THE ORIGIN OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM ITSELF,
AS A RESULT OF PURELY UNDIRECTED NATURAL FORCES WITHOUT RECOURSE
TO ANY DESIGNING INTELLIGENCE. HE WROTE A BOOK CALLED,
THE CELESTIAL MECHANICS THAT BECAME A GREAT CLASSIC IN
PHYSICS, IN WHICH HE ATTEMPTED TO DO THAT. HE APPARENTLY WAS
CALLED BEFORE NAPOLEON TO RECEIVE COMMENDATION FOR MAKING FRENCH SCIENCE PROUD AS A RESULT OF PUBLISHING THIS BOOK. AND AS THE STORY GOES, NAPOLEON TELLS HIM, YOU KNOW, WHAT A WONDERFUL JOB HE’S DONE, SHOWED UP THE BRITISH AND WROTE THIS GREAT BOOK OF SCIENCE. BUT HE NOTICED THAT HE DIDN’T
MENTION GOD IN HIS SCIENTIFIC WORKS, AND YET SIR ISAAC NEWTON
HAD MENTIONED HIM ON NEARLY EVERY PAGE. AND LAPLACE IS SAID
TO HAVE KIND OF PUFFED HIMSELF UP AND HE SAID, “SIRE, I HAVE
NO NEED OF THAT HYPOTHESIS.” AND WE DON’T KNOW IF THIS IS
ACTUALLY TRUE, BUT IT BECAME EMBLEMATIC OF WHAT WOULD UNFOLD
IN THE 19TH CENTURY, AS SCIENCE EXPLAINED MORE OF THESE GREAT
EVENTS IN THE HISTORY OF THE COSMOS, THESE ORIGINS EVENTS. LAPLACE ATTEMPTED TO EXPLAIN THE ORIGIN OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM. LYELL CAME ALONG IN GEOLOGY AND ATTEMPTED TO EXPLAIN THE ORIGIN OF THE GREAT GEOLOGICAL FEATURES AS A RESULT OF THE OUTWORKING OF SLOW, GRADUAL, NATURALISTIC PROCESSES, WHETHER THE MOUNTAINS OR THE CANYONS OR WHAT HAVE YOU. THEN DARWIN CAME ALONG AND EXPLAINED THE ORIGIN OF THE NEW SPECIES FROM SIMPLER PRE-EXISTING SPECIES. SCIENTISTS FOLLOWED HIM, ATTEMPTED TO EXPLAIN THE ORIGIN OF THE LIFE, THOSE WE’VE TALKED ABOUT IN PREVIOUS SECTIONS OF THIS SHOW, NOT SO SUCCESSFULLY. BUT BY
THE END OF THE 19TH CENTURY, THERE WAS THIS PERSPECTIVE THAT
YOU COULD HAVE A COMPLETELY, SEAMLESS, NATURALISTIC ACCOUNT
OF THE WHOLE OF THE UNIVERSE, FROM THE ORIGIN OF THE SOLAR
SYSTEM TO THE ORIGIN OF THE PLANET EARTH AND
THE CANYONS, TO THE ORIGIN OF LIFE TO THE ORIGIN OF NEW
SPECIES, EVEN TO THE ORIGIN OF MAN, AS DARWIN EXTENDED HIS IDEA
OF EVOLUTION TO ACCOUNT FOR THE HUMAN SPECIES. SO,
IT WAS A KIND OF A SEAMLESS, NATURALISTIC ACCOUNT. AND
ONE SCIENTIST HAS SAID OF DARWIN, THAT HE HELPED ESTABLISH THIS MATERIALISTIC WORLDVIEW. DOUGLAS FUTUYMA, IN HIS STANDARD EVOLUTIONARY TEXTBOOK SAYS, “BY COUPLING THE UNDIRECTED, PURPOSELESS VARIATIONS TO THE BLIND UNCARING PROCESS OF NATURAL SELECTION, DARWIN MADE THEOLOGICAL OR SPIRITUAL EXPLANATIONS OF LIFE SUPERFLUOUS.” HE HAD NO NEED OF THAT HYPOTHESIS, JUST AS LAPLACE HAD NO NEED OF IT. SO, BY THE END OF
THE 19TH CENTURY, YOU HAVE NOT ONLY A SERIES OF THEORIES ABOUT
ORIGINS, YOU HAVE A KIND OF COMPREHENSIVE WORLDVIEW THAT
GIVES A FULL ACCOUNT OF WHERE EVERYTHING CAME FROM, WITHOUT
ANY RECOURSE TO A DESIGNING MIND, TO A CREATOR, TO GOD,
ANY EXTERNAL AGENT OF ANY KIND. AND SO, YOU KNOW, THAT’S HOW
WE GOT FROM NEWTON TO DAWKINS. AND DAWKINS, IN TALKING ABOUT
THE NEW ATHEISM, IS REALLY RECYCLING THE PERSPECTIVE
OF THE LATE 19TH CENTURY.>>ANKERBERG: ALRIGHT, WE’RE
GOING TO TAKE A BREAK AND WHEN WE COME BACK, WE’RE GOING TO
TURN THE CORNER. WE’RE GOING TO TALK ABOUT THE NEW
SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE THAT REFUTES THE MATERIALISTIC, NATURALISTIC
WORLD VIEW AND REFUTES THE NEW ATHEISTS AND WHAT THE’RE SAYING
THAT THERE IS NO EVIDENCE OF DESIGN WHEN YOU LOOK AT
THE UNIVERSE. WE’RE GOING TO TALK ABOUT THAT AND HE’S GOING
TO LAY IT OUT FOR YOU. STICK WITH US.
WE’LL BE RIGHT BACK.>>ANNOUNCER: IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO HAVE THE INFORMATION IN OUR SERIES, THE FOUR GREAT DISCOVERIES OF MODERN SCIENCE THAT PROVE GOD EXISTS, WITH DR. STEPHEN MEYER, IT IS AVAILABLE ON DVD FOR A GIFT OF $49. AND YOU MAY ORDER THIS SERIES NOW BY CALLING US AT 1-800-805-3030.>>ANKERBERG: ALRIGHT, WE’RE BACK
AND WE’RE TALKING WITH DR. STEPHEN MEYER, PHILOSOPHER
OF SCIENCE, AND WE’RE TALKING ABOUT: WHAT IS THE MATERIALISTIC
WORLDVIEW AND WHAT IS THE SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE THAT
IS STARTING TO REFUTE THAT?>>MEYER: WELL, IF YOU THINK
ABOUT WHAT WE WERE TALKING ABOUT IN THE LAST SEGMENT,
HOW THE SCIENTISTS IN THE 19TH CENTURY HAD DEVELOPED
A SERIES OF IDEAS ABOUT HOW ALL THE BIG THINGS IN THE UNIVERSE
AROSE, THEY HAD AN EXPLANATION (OR, AT LEAST, SO THEY THOUGHT)
FOR THE ORIGIN OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM, FOR THE ORIGIN OF
THE GREAT GEOLOGIC FEATURES, THE ORIGIN OF NEW FORMS OF LIFE,
THE FIRST LIFE, THEY HAD THIS SEAMLESS, MATERIALISTIC ACCOUNT. BUT IF YOU WERE TO ASK
A QUESTION ABOUT THAT, THERE WAS ONE UNANSWERED QUESTION,
AND IT WAS, WELL, WHERE DID ALL THE MATTER COME FROM IN
THE FIRST PLACE? WHERE DID ALL THE PARTICLES AND THE GASES
COME FROM THAT WERE NECESSARY, TO BUILD EVEN THE SOLAR SYSTEM? WELL, THAT DIDN’T BOTHER
SCIENTISTS IN THE 19TH CENTURY SO MUCH BECAUSE THEY ASSUMED
THAT THE UNIVERSE WAS INFINITE, THAT IT HAD ALWAYS BEEN HERE. SO, IF YOU WANT TO TELL
THE STORY OF THE COSMOS, YOU GO BACK FROM HUMAN LIFE, TO SIMPLER
LIFE, TO THE FIRST LIFE, TO THE CHEMICALS, OUT OF WHICH
THE FIRST LIFE WAS MADE, TO THE ELEMENTARY PARTICLES,
AND THOSE HAVE BEEN HERE FROM ETERNITY PAST. AND SO
THE MATERIALISTIC WORLDVIEW COULD BE SUMMARIZED IN A KIND
OF A LITTLE CREDO THAT RUNS SOMETHING LIKE THIS: FROM
ETERNITY PAST WERE THE PARTICLES, NOT
“IN THE BEGINNING WAS THE…,” YOU KNOW, BUT FROM ETERNITY
PAST WERE THE PARTICLES, AND THE PARTICLES ARRANGED
THEMSELVES AND BECAME MORE COMPLEX STUFF, MORE COMPLEX
CHEMICALS. AND THE CHEMICALS ARRANGED THEMSELVES AND BECAME
THE FIRST LIVING CELL. AND THAT EVENTUALLY EVOLVED BY UNDIRECTED
MATERIALISTIC PROCESSES, NAMELY NATURAL SELECTION, AND THAT CELL
BECAME MORE COMPLEX LIFE. AND THOSE LIVING FORMS EVENTUALLY CONCEIVED OF THE IDEA OF GOD. YOU KNOW, THEY BECAME AWARE FIRST, AND THEN CONCEIVED OF THE IDEA OF GOD. SO, IN
THE MATERIALISTIC WORLDVIEW, THERE IS A PLACE FOR GOD,
BUT GOD IS A CONCEPT IN THE MIND OF ONE OF THE EVOLVED FORMS
OF LIFE, NAMELY US, BUT GOD HAS NO REALITY. AND WHAT IS
FUNDAMENTAL, WHAT IS THE THING FROM WHICH EVERYTHING ELSE
COMES, IS THE PARTICLES, IS MATTER AND ENERGY THAT HAS
BEEN HERE FROM ETERNITY PAST. SO, THAT’S A PERSPECTIVE THAT’S
NOT JUST BASED ON CERTAIN SCIENTIFIC THEORIES, IT’S
COMPREHENSIVE AND IN THAT SENSE IT’S A KIND OF A PHILOSOPHY OR
A WORLDVIEW, A COMPREHENSIVE WAY OF LOOKING AT EVERYTHING.>>ANKERBERG: VERY CLEAR,
VERY CLEAR PICTURE OF THE MATERIALISTIC VIEW. NOW,
LET’S GET INTO THE STUFF – WHAT’S THE NEW SCIENCE
THAT IS DESTROYING THAT?>>MEYER: WELL, REMEMBER, ONE OF
THE KEY PREMISES THAT IS IN THIS WORLDVIEW IS THAT MATTER
AND ENERGY ARE ETERNAL AND SELF-EXISTENT AND THEN
ALSO SELF-ORGANIZING. BUT THE FABULOUS, EXTRAORDINARY
DISCOVERY OF MODERN COSMOLOGY IS THAT THE UNIVERSE IS NOT
ETERNAL, THAT IT’S NOT ALWAYS BEEN HERE, TIME IS NOT INFINITE
IN DURATION, GOING ALL THE WAY BACK. AND WHAT FIRST MADE
SCIENTISTS AWARE OF THIS WAS THINGS THAT THEY WERE SEEING
THROUGH THE TELESCOPES, THE GREAT LAR… THE DOME TELESCOPES THAT CAME
ON THE SCENE IN THE 1920’S. AND THIS IS A PHOTOGRAPH OF
EDWIN HUBBLE, FOR WHOM THE HUBBLE TELESCOPE OF TODAY IS
NAMED. HUBBLE BEGAN TO WORK IN ASTRONOMY AT A VERY PROPITIOUS
TIME, RIGHT IN THE 1920’S, AS THESE GREAT DOME TELESCOPES WERE
BEING DESIGNED AND CREATED. AND AS A RESULT OF THESE TELESCOPES,
THEY COULD CAPTURE A GREAT DEAL OF LIGHT COMING FROM THE NIGHT
SKY. AND WE’RE ABLE TO RESOLVE LITTLE TINY PINPRICKS OF LIGHT
THAT PREVIOUSLY WE COULDN’T MAKE OUT. AND BEFORE THE 1920’S
THERE WAS A DEBATE AMONG ASTRONOMERS AS TO WHETHER OR NOT
THE MILKY WAY, THE GALAXY IN WHICH OUR SOLAR SYSTEM RESIDES,
WAS THE ONLY GALAXY OR NOT. WHAT HUBBLE DISCOVERED WAS,
FIRST OF ALL, THAT THERE WERE MANY GALAXIES IN EVERY QUADRANT
OF THE SKY. AND I’VE GOT SOME PHOTOS, OF SOME, JUST
THEY’RE ABSOLUTELY BEAUTIFUL. HERE HE IS AT HIS TELESCOPE
HAVING A LOOK, AND HE’S GOT SPINDLE NEBULAE THAT
HE DISCOVERS – AND SOME OF THESE, SOME OF THESE ARE SOME OF HIS ORIGINAL
PHOTOGRAPHIC PLATES – SPIRAL NEBULA, SKETCHES THAT HE MADE
OF THESE BEAUTIFUL, GALACTIC PHENOMENA. AND NOW WE KNOW THAT
AS YOU LOOK AT ANY, ANY QUADRANT OF THE SKY, IN WHICH YOU CHOSE
TO FOCUS, AND THEN YOU MAGNIFY THAT, THAT’S WHAT’S CALLED”
THE HUBBLE DEEP FIELD,” THE… EVEN THE TINIEST LITTLE QUADRANT
IS JUST CHOCK-FULL OF GALAXIES IN EVERY DIRECTION. SO IT’S
AN IMMENSE AND ENORMOUS UNIVERSE. THAT’S THE FIRST THING
HE DISCOVERS. BUT THE SECOND THING IS EVEN MORE SIGNIFICANT,
PHILOSOPHICALLY AND SCIENTIFICALLY, AND THAT IS THAT
THE GALAXIES, THE LIGHT COMING FROM THESE GALAXIES IS SHIFTED
IN THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM FROM RED TO VIOLET. IT’S SHIFTED
IN THE RED DIRECTION OF THE SPECTRUM, INDICATING THAT
THE LIGHT IS COMING FROM OBJECTS THAT ARE RECEDING, THAT ARE
MOVING AWAY FROM US VERY FAST. SOME OF YOUR VIEWERS WOULD
PROBABLY REMEMBER THE DOPPLER EFFECT. WE’RE AWARE OF IT WITH
SOUND; IF YOU HAVE A TRAIN RECEIVED FROM THE PITCH OF
THE TRAIN, THE [SOUND EFFECT] GOES DOWN. THE SAME THING HAPPENS WITH
LIGHT. IF AN OBJECT IS RECEDING, THE WAVELENGTH STRETCHES OUT AND
LONGER WAVELENGTHS CORRESPOND TO THE RED END OF THE SPECTRUM. SO LIGHT THAT’S SHIFTED IN
THE RED DIRECTION IS INDICATING A RECESSIONAL VELOCITY:
THE THING IS MOVING AWAY FROM US. AND WHAT HUBBLE DISCOVERED
WAS THAT NO MATTER WHICH QUADRANT OF THE SKY WE LOOK,
WE FIND GALAXIES THAT ARE MOVING AWAY FROM US. AND THAT LED TO
AN AMAZING, AMAZING CONCLUSION, WHICH IS THAT THE UNIVERSE IS
EXPANDING AND IT’S EXPANDING OUTWARD IN ALL DIRECTIONS,
IT’S A KIND OF A SPHERICAL EXPANSION, IF YOU WILL. AND I’VE GOT A WAY OF
ILLUSTRATING THAT, IF YOU WILL, OKAY? AND THIS IS A SIMPLE
BALLOON. BUT THE IDEA, IF EVERY, IF EVERY GALAXY IS MOVING AWAY FROM US
AND IF THE FURTHER AWAY IT IS, THE FASTER IT’S GOING, WHICH
IS SOMETHING ELSE THAT HUBBLE DISCOVERED. THE ONLY WAY TO
MAKE SENSE OF THAT IS THAT THE UNIVERSE IS EXPANDING IN
A SPHERICAL WAY, LIKE THIS. [BLOWS UP THE BALLOON.]
IN OTHER WORDS, AS YOU’RE GOING IN THE FORWARD DIRECTION OF
TIME, THE GALAXIES ARE MOVING FURTHER AWAY FROM EACH OTHER
AND THE UNIVERSE IS EXPANDING. [ADDS MORE AIR TO BALLOON.]
OKAY. REAL SIMPLE ILLUSTRATION. KIND OF AN OVAL-SHAPED UNIVERSE
HERE. ANYWAY, AS YOU… WHAT HAPPENS THOUGH,
THINK ABOUT THIS. WHAT HAPPENS AS YOU BEGIN
TO BACK EXTRAPOLATE, AS THE SCIENTISTS SAY, AS YOU BEGIN TO THINK
ABOUT THE UNIVERSE WOULD HAVE BEEN LIKE 1000
YEARS AGO, OR 100,000 YEARS AGO OR 1,000,000 YEARS AGO, YOU GO
BACK AS FAR AS YOU WANT, AND AT EACH STEP BACK THE UNIVERSE IS
GOING TO BE GETTER SMALLER AND SMALLER AND SMALLER AND SMALLER
UNTIL FINALLY YOU GET TO A POINT WHERE ALL THE MATTER IN
THE UNIVERSE IS CONGEALED INTO A SINGLE POINT. AND THAT MARKS
THE BEGINNING OF EXPANSION, AND ALSO THE BEGINNING OF
THE UNIVERSE ITSELF. AND SO, CONTRARY TO THE 19TH CENTURY
PERSPECTIVE THAT SAID THAT THE UNIVERSE WAS ETERNAL
AND SELF-EXISTING AND IT WAS INFINITE IN DURATION IN TIME
GOING BACK, HUBBLE’S DISCOVERY WAS THE FIRST OF MANY INDICATORS
THAT THE UNIVERSE ACTUALLY HAD A DEFINITE BEGINNING; IN FACT,
A DEFINITE BEGINNING IN TIME. AND THAT ESTABLISHED NOW WHAT WE
REFER TO AS “THE FINITE NATURE OF THE UNIVERSE.” IT’S NOT
INFINITE IN TIME, IT’S FINITE, IT HAS A BEGINNING.>>ANKERBERG: NEXT WAS EINSTEIN.>>MEYER: WELL, EINSTEIN HAS
A VERY INTERESTING ROLE IN THIS STORY, BECAUSE HE, YOU KNOW,
THE GUY WITH THE BAD HAIR THAT WE ALL KNOW THAT IS THE ICON
OF SCIENCE ITSELF. AND HE WAS WORKING ON A THEORY CALLED
“GENERAL RELATIVITY” IN THE TEENS. WE’RE PRIOR
TO HUBBLE. AND AS A RESULT… THIS IS A THEORY OF GRAVITY THAT IMPLIED THAT MASSIVE OBJECTS CAUSE SPACE ITSELF TO ACTUALLY BEND OR CREATE A CURVATURE OF SPACE. AND HIS THEORY IMPLIED THAT THE UNIVERSE WAS EXPANDING
AND DECELERATING, AS IF,… A GOOD ILLUSTRATION MIGHT BE
LIKE A FIRE-CRACKER – YOU LIGHT IT, YOU THROW IT IN THE AIR, IT
GOES KA-BANG AND THEN YOU HAVE THE PAPER SHRAPNEL, THAT FIRST
ACCELERATES VERY QUICKLY AND THEN KIND OF FLUTTERS,
FLUTTERS TO THE GROUND. AND IN OTHER WORDS, THE IMPLICATION
OF HIS THEORY, AND THE MATH THAT DESCRIBED WHAT THE UNIVERSE WAS
DOING, IMPLIED THAT THE UNIVERSE WAS EXPANDING AND DECELERATING,
BUT THEN IF YOU WIND THE CLOCK BACK AGAIN, THAT IT HAD
A BEGINNING. SO, EINSTEIN’S THEORY AND HUBBLE’S OBSERVATIONS
CONVERGED ON THIS CONCLUSION THAT THERE MUST BE A BEGINNING. BUT THE INTERESTING PART
OF THE STORY IS THAT EINSTEIN DIDN’T WANT TO BELIEVE
HIS OWN RESULTS. HE DIDN’T WANT TO BELIEVE HIS OWN MATH. AND SO
WHAT HE DID IS, HE POSITED AN ARBITRARY VALUE FOR ONE OF
THE CONSTANTS IN HIS EQUATION. HIS EQUATION… THE FIELD
EQUATIONS OF RELATIVITY, GENERAL RELATIVITY IMPLIED THAT
THE UNIVERSE WAS EXPANDING, AND IT HAD TO BE EXPANDING TO
COUNTERACT THE FORCE OF GRAVITY, BECAUSE IF WE ONLY HAD GRAVITY,
WE’D ALL COLLAPSE INTO ONE BIG BALL. SO, HE POSITED NOT ONLY
GRAVITY, BUT THERE WAS AN EXPANSION FORCE, BUT THEN
HE POSITED ANOTHER FORCE OF JUST THE RIGHT STRENGTH,
A CONTRACTING FORCE THAT WOULD COUNTERACT THE EXPANSION FORCE. AND THAT WAS CALLED HIS
“COSMOLOGICAL CONSTANT.” NOW, HE HAD NO PHYSICAL
JUSTIFICATION FOR THIS, NO EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT THIS. BUT
HE WAS, AT THE TIME, STRONGLY PERSUADED OF THE NATURALISTIC,
THE MATERIALISTIC WORLDVIEW THAT SAID THAT THE UNIVERSE WAS
ETERNAL AND INFINITE IN TIME. AND THE IDEA OF A BEGINNING TO
THE UNIVERSE WAS JUST ABHORRENT TO HIM, SO HE POSITED THIS
AS A KIND OF PHILOSOPHICAL NECESSITY TO KEEP THE UNIVERSE
STATIC, AND THEREBY ETERNAL IN TIME. AND HE LATER LEARNED,
THAT, WELL, HE’D MADE A BIT OF A MISTAKE ON THAT. IN FACT,
IT WAS ENCOUNTERING HUBBLE THAT GOT HIM TO CHANGE
HIS MIND AGAIN.>>ANKERBERG: EINSTEIN MADE UP
THIS COSMOLOGICAL CONSTANT, AND YET LATER ON THE EVIDENCE
BROUGHT HIM BACK AND SHOWED HIM THAT HE WAS WRONG, AND HE
ADMITTED THAT HE WAS WRONG. WHAT HAPPENED?>>MEYER: WELL, IT’S A FAMOUS
STORY. HE WAS INVITED OUT TO THE PALOMAR OBSERVATORY,
MT. WILSON, IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA. HUBBLE HAD MADE
THESE AMAZING DISCOVERIES ABOUT THE EXPANDING UNIVERSE. HE WRITES TO EINSTEIN AND
INVITES HIM TO COME OUT AND SEE WHAT HE’S SEEN, AND THERE’S SOME
NEWSREEL FOOTAGE FROM THE TIME. EINSTEIN GOES OUT, HE MEETS
WITH THESE OTHER SCIENTISTS, THE MEDIA’S GATHERED THERE. HE GOES IN, HE LOOKS IN
THE TELESCOPE, IT’S ALL PRE-STAGED. BUT WHEN HE COMES
OUT, HE SAYS IN HIS HEAVY GERMAN ACCENT, HE SAYS, “I NOW SEE
THE NECESSITY OF A BEGINNING.” AND HE LATER ANNOUNCED THAT HIS
FUDGE FACTOR, THE PRECISE VALUE THAT HE SET FOR THE COSMOLOGICAL
CONSTANT, WAS THE GREATEST MISTAKE OF HIS SCIENTIFIC
CAREER; THAT INSTEAD OF A INFINITE UNIVERSE, UNIVERSE
INFINITE IN TIME, THERE WAS NOW DECISIVE EVIDENCE FROM
THE HEAVENS, FROM THE TELESCOPE, THAT THERE WAS A DEFINITE
BEGINNING TO THE UNIVERSE, JUST AS HIS THEORY OF GENERAL
RELATIVITY FIRST IMPLIED. SO, HE HAD THESE TWO STRAINS
OF SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERY, ONE THEORETICAL, ONE EMPIRICAL,
CONVERGING ON THE CONCLUSION THERE MUST BE A BEGINNING, IN STARK CONTRADICTION TO THE KEY TENANT OF THE NATURALISTIC WORLDVIEW THAT SAYS THAT THE UNIVERSE IS ETERNAL AND SELF-EXISTANT AND INFINITE IN TIME. SO, THIS IS A HUGE CHALLANGE
TO THE SCIENTIFIC MATERIALISM.>>ANKERBERG: NEXT WEEK WE’RE
GOING TO TURN THE CORNER AND WE’RE GOING TO TALK ABOUT
THE FACT IS, YEAH, THAT RUBBED THE SCIENTISTS THE WRONG WAY,
BECAUSE IT KNOCKED OUT THEIR NATURALISTIC, MATERIALISTIC
WORLDVIEW. AND SO THEY FOUGHT BACK, AND THEY HAD OTHER
THEORIES THAT THEY PROPOSED, AND WE’RE GOING TO LOOK AT
THOSE THEORIES AND WE’RE GOING TO SEE THAT SCIENCE CONTINUES
TO REFUTE THOSE THEORIES. SO, FOLKS, JOIN US NEXT WEEK.>>ANNOUNCER: STAY TUNED FOR SCENES FROM NEXT WEEK’S PROGRAM.>>ANNOUNCER: IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO HAVE ALL OF THE INFORMATION IN OUR NEW SERIES, THE FOUR GREAT DISCOVERIES OF MODERN SCIENCE THAT PROVE GOD EXISTS, WITH DR. STEPHEN MEYER, IT IS AVAILABLE ON DVD FOR A GIFT OF $49. YOU WILL LEARN HOW SCIENTISTS HAVE DISCOVERED THAT THE UNIVERSE HAD A DEFINITE BEGINNING, A DISCOVERY THAT VERIFIES THE BIBLICAL STATEMENT: “IN THE BEGINNING GOD CREATED THE HEAVENS AND THE EARTH.” HOW SPACE AND TIME ALSO HAD A BEGINNING, A DISCOVERY THAT DEMANDS A TRANSCENDENT CAUSE BEYOND THE PHYSICAL UNIVERSE ITSELF. A CAUSE WHICH CHRISTIANS CALL GOD. HOW THE UNIVERSE HAS BEEN FINE-TUNED FOR HUMAN LIFE TO EXIST. AND HOW DESIGN HAS BEEN BUILT INTO THE VERY FABRIC OF THE LAWS AND CONSTANTS OF PHYSICS. AND HOW THE DIGITAL CODE IN THE DNA MOLECULE OF EVERY HUMAN CELL IS COMPELLING EVIDENCE OF AN INTELLIGENT DESIGNER FOR THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN LIFE. ALL FOUR TELEVISION PROGRAMS IN THIS IMPORTANT SERIES ARE AVAILABLE ON DVD FOR A GIFT OF $49. THEN SECOND, OUR SERIES, DOES THE NEW SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE ABOUT THE ORIGIN OF LIFE PUT AN END TO DARWINIAN EVOLUTION? ALSO WITH DR. STEPHEN MEYER. IN THIS SERIES YOU WILL LEARN HOW THE HUMAN CELL IS COMPLEX BEYOND BELIEF, A VERITABLE MICRO-MINIATURIZED FACTORY, CONTAINING THOUSANDS OF EXQUISITELY DESIGNED PIECES OF MOLECULAR MACHINERY. HOW THE 3 BILLION CHARACTERS OF PRECISE DIGITAL CODE EMBEDDED IN THE DNA MOLECULE, IS COMPELLING EVIDENCE OF AN INTELLIGENT DESIGNER FOR THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN LIFE. ALL FIVE TELEVISION PROGRAMS IN THIS SERIES ARE AVAILABLE ON DVD FOR A GIFT OF $49. AND THIRD, WE HAVE WRITTEN TWO NEW STUDY GUIDES WITH EXTENSIVE NOTES THAT PARALLELS EACH OF OUR TELEVISION SERIES WITH DR. MEYER. THEY ARE AVAILABLE FOR A GIFT OF $8 EACH OR FOR FIVE OR MORE COPIES, FOR $5 EACH. FOURTH, WE ARE MAKING AVAILABLE 3 BEAUTIFUL DOCUMENTARY FILMS. FIRST, UNLOCKING THE MYSTERY OF LIFE, WHICH WILL TRANSPORT YOU BY STATE-OF-THE-ART COMPUTER ANIMATION INTO THE INTERIOR OF THE TRILLIONS OF CELLS IN OUR BODIES, TO SHOW YOU THE SYSTEMS AND MACHINES THAT ARE PRESENT AND BEAR THE UNMISTAKABLE HALLMARKS OF GOD’S DESIGN. SECOND, THE HOUR LONG FILM DOCUMENTARY, THE PRIVILEGED PLANET, WHICH WILL SHOW YOU HOW THE LAWS OF PHYSICS ARE PRECISELY “FINE-TUNED” FOR THE EXISTENCE OF LIFE. WHY EARTH’S ENVIRONMENT PROVIDES A DELICATE, AND EXCEEDINGLY RARE, CRADLE FOR COMPLEX LIFE, AND POINTS TO A UNIVERSE THAT IS DESIGNED BY GOD. THIRD, THE DOCUMENTARY FILM, DARWIN’S DILEMMA, WHICH EXPLORES THE CAMBRIAN EXPLOSION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS. WHERE ARE THE MISSING TRANSITIONAL FOSSILS AND LINKS THAT DARWIN POSTULATED SHOULD BE IN THE FOSSIL RECORD? CAN ANY NATURALISTIC, EVOLUTIONARY PROCESS EXPLAIN THIS STARTLING EXPLOSION OF EARLY PLANT AND ANIMAL LIFE, OR DOES THE CAMBRIAN FOSSIL RECORD POINT UNMISTAKABLY TO PURPOSE AND INTELLIGENT DESIGN. THE 3 DOCUMENTARY MOVIES ARE AVAILABLE FOR A GIFT OF $45. AND FINALLY, IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO HAVE ALL OF THE MATERIALS MENTIONED TODAY, INCLUDING THE 2 TELEVISION SERIES, PLUS THE 2 STUDY GUIDES, PLUS THE 3 DOCUMENTARY MOVIES, ALL OF THESE MATERIALS TOGETHER ARE AVAILABLE IN A SPECIAL PACKAGE FOR ONLY $129. AND YOU MAY ORDER THIS SPECIAL PACKAGE NOW BY CALLING US AT 1-800-805-3030. THAT’S 1-800-805-3030. OR YOU MAY ORDER THESE PROGRAMS AT OUR WEBSITE AT JASHOW.ORG.>>ANNOUNCER: NEXT WEEK ON
THE JOHN ANKERBERG SHOW:>>DR. STEPHEN MEYER: WHEN
I HEARD HIM SPEAK HE WAS DESCRIBING THE EVIDENCE FOR
THE BIG BANG. AND HE SAYS, “HERE IS EVIDENCE FOR WHAT
CAN ONLY BE DESCRIBED AS A SUPERNATURAL EVENT.”

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