Science and spirituality: Jeff Lieberman at TEDxCambridge 2011


Translator: Leonardo Silva
Reviewer: Helene Batt Three years ago
was a turning point in my life because I finally had everything
I thought I needed to be fulfilled, and I still had this voice in my head
saying I had to do more to be happy. The more that I looked
at my own suffering deeply, the more I saw it
in every single person around us. We have trouble standing in lines,
we’re impatient with our own children. It’s as if we all think the future holds
the promise for our fulfillment. And I come from a scientific background, so I wanted to use that background
to understand the real root and source of why there’s so much suffering. And where it’s led me
has totally changed my views of the current scientific paradigm, but more importantly than that,
it’s changed my views on what it means to be
a human being and to be alive. I want to share this theory
with you, and it’s way out there. So, I ask you to have a critical,
but open mind for the next 14 minutes, because you might not actually be
what you think you are. So, who am I, alright?
I’m a human being, and I’m 33 years old. But if you take a microscope
and look at any part of me, you see cells. And I’m a community of 50 trillion cells,
doing a magic dance. And you at any one of those cells
with an even closer microscope, and you see 20 trillion atoms. And so, I’m also a community
of 1,000 trillion trillion atoms. But when you look
at those atoms really up-close, they fade away, and all you see is energy. And 13.7 billion years ago,
at the Big Bang, everything that we’ve ever found
in the entire universe was one infinitesimal,
undifferentiated, pure energy. All of us are energy. A human being is a very
complex pattern of energy. So, I stand here as a 33-year-old,
basically motionless, but when you look up-close
at any single part of me, I’m moving the speed of light,
and I’m the age of the universe. So, the question for me is: I know this conceptually. Why don’t we feel it? Why do we walk around being so sure
that we’re a human being all the time, and we never feel like we’re energy,
because it sounds awesome? (Laughter) And I think the reason
that we don’t notice it is because we are so distracted
by the human levels of our experience that we fail to notice
what is always sitting beneath. And so, I want to look
at those distractions. Take five seconds, and think about something
that you’re going to do tomorrow. So, what you just did is something
that, as far as we understand, no other organism
in the entire universe can do. You just built an alternate reality
inside your head. You just made a prediction
about the future that has never happened in reality. And this powerful prediction,
when you can compare alternate realities, allows you to plan for the future. And from agriculture to your retirement,
this has changed the face of the planet. It’s probably the most significant,
evolutionary step forward since walking upright. So, I want to look
at this tool in your head, because your mind
is a thought-generating machine, to make proliferate predictions
about the future, to guide and goal-orient your behavior. What does this machine
look like in all of our heads, in 2011? So, another experiment:
Take ten seconds, and stop thinking. OK. Did anyone make it? Ten seconds?
(Laughter) I make it about two,
and then I start strategizing about how I’m going to stop thinking;
I think about that the whole time. Alright, so what this means is you have
such an evolutionarily advantageous tool that it’s become completely compulsive, but you’ve got to remember,
no other organism does this at all. And the side effect of having
the most evolutionarily advantageous tool in the entire universe
sitting in your head is that you have no control over it. And when you have no control and you compulsively generate
all these possible realities, you always compare them to where you are,
to try to goal-orient your behavior, and this creates an entirely new class
of human suffering. Things like jealousy and regret
about something that happened in the past, and anxiety about your future,
no other organism can feel. And so, I want to understand
if it’s possible to totally eliminate those sources
of suffering from humanity. This is just a brief list of all those
possible sources of suffering. In order to find out
if it’s possible to remove those sources, we have to take a kind of scientific,
experimental objective at ourselves, we have to take a look at all the layers
of our own experience, and try to be as objective
as possible about them. This is amazingly difficult, because we’re so emotionally involved
in our own lives, and as any of you know, if you go to a movie
and you’re emotionally involved, two minutes into it, you totally forget
that you’re at a movie, and the lights turn on at the end,
and you’re shocked back into reality. So, this is even more difficult,
because we have to look at our own movie, the movie inside our consciousness. We’ll do two quick experiments, and this
only will give you a taste of something that takes much longer
to understand the depth of. So, the first one is your sight. From what we understand in physics, all light is a vibration
of electromagnetic field. And none of those light waves
intrinsically have any color. There’s just this change in frequency. But once those waves go into your eye and into your brain, you create
the subjective experience of color. Now, what this means is that you all think
that you are seeing me out here, with a red shirt on,
but this red only exists in your head, and so, this entire picture you’re seeing
is happening inside your head, in a movie inside your consciousness. And if you remove a little bit
of the attention from me directly, you can start to have
some attention on yourself, noticing that you are seeing me inside your head. So, let’s do a second experiment.
It’s even more subtle than that one. Read this sentence twice,
silently to yourself. [The voice in your head] [“I can hear the voice in my head
reading this sentence”] OK, so it’s weird, right? But you can get this very weird,
subtle perspective that you can look at your own
thought process objectively. You’re actually listening
to the soundtrack of thoughts inside your head,
in your movie of consciousness. [I am] Imagine that I do this process
for thousands of hours, and I just try to look,
as objective as possible, at my thoughts, and my emotions,
and my perceptions, and even the way that my brain
has modeled space and time. The more that I pull attention away
from the thoughts and the perceptions, the more I seem to notice myself noticing these things
inside my consciousness. And eventually, maybe I can pull
all of the attention away from all those layers of thoughts,
perceptions, my body, my sensations, and there’s nothing left to perceive, there’s nothing left
that I can consider myself, because I’ve seen it all
in front as not me. And yet, the one thing that remains
is this feeling of existence. “I am” remains. This feeling of “I am”. And what I find when I sit in that state is that what my identity is,
whatever it is, is beyond perception, it cannot be perceived,
but it is still experienced. And this “I am” is the root
of our entire existence. “I am” is latent in every single aspect
of our existence, but just like a fish might never notice
the water that it swims in, we might never notice the “I am”
because it’s covered. “I am” is a completely empty experience,
it’s devoid of any content, and when I experience it
directly, on its own, there’s the possibility for a realization: “Maybe I’m not a human being
that has consciousness. Maybe I’m consciousness
that is shaped into a human being.” And when I see
this totally empty experience, there’s no content, form, structure, there’s not even a model of space and time
that is generated in the mind. And we’ve seen those conditions before,
13.7 billion years ago, when the entire universe
was an undifferentiated, pure energy. And so, just maybe there is
the potential to realize directly I am that energy, I always have been that energy,
and I always will be that energy. Einstein said that thoughts suffer
from an optical illusion of consciousness, this illusion that there’s
a separate person inside an environment, when in reality, there’s just energy
in motion, everywhere. And just like an ocean is water in motion, we can call a certain part
of that ocean a wave, but it gives us the illusion that the wave
is a separate entity in the ocean. But a wave is not in the ocean.
A wave is the ocean. And similarly, we might not be waves. Maybe we’re the ocean. Maybe all of us are energy,
and we can realize that directly. Now, this experience
could never be reduced to words, because it makes words, but it could be experienced, and I think
it’s such an important experience that people have been trying
to name it for thousands of years, and they call it spiritual enlightenment. [You are not what you think] And I think the first
human beings started realizing that they were fundamentally energy
about 2,500 years ago. And all of them say the same thing. They say it is the complete ending
of human suffering. Well of course it’s the end
of human suffering! All suffering is based
on the illusory separation that there’s an individual
in the environment, that there’s a person that has to survive, that this specific collection
of 1,000 trillion trillion atoms has to hold itself together. But if I realize directly
that I am energy, and I realize the body and the mind are
a temporary manifestation of that energy, then I can fully accept the death
of the body and mind as something that does not happen to me, because I was always energy
and I always will be. And if I were to experience that directly, this voice in my head that tells me
I have to do certain things in order to be fulfilled
loses all of its power. At this very moment, I never have
to listen to that voice again, and so everything in life
becomes a game, for fun, a play. And we’ve all experienced that,
but it’s very hard to remember, because we were so young, and maybe we were at the beach
building a sand castle, and the entire world faded away because we were
only building it to build it, and we weren’t trying
to get somewhere else. We hadn’t even learned how to plan. And so, the only moment
that mattered to us was right now. I think this experience
is so important and powerful that every religious tradition at its core has been trying to convince us
of its importance, and if it’s true, if the true end
of all human psychological suffering is actually possible, it is the most
important thing science could be studying. When we look at monks and nuns
who have meditated or prayed for thousands of hours, we see
remarkable shifts on their brain scans. Trillions of neural connections
have changed configuration. And along with this
quantifiable objective change in the operating system of the brain, they describe a feeling
of undifferentiated, infinite oneness. To me, that sounds like they’re having
the direct experience of being energy. Now, enlightenment science
and enlightenment engineering would study these ancient technologies
of prayer and meditation as data sets, to understand what has to change
in the structure of a human brain for a human being to understand
that they are energy directly. And we still have no idea
how much modern technology could completely change
our ability to understand that. Maybe it’s possible that,
within our lifetimes, we could actually eradicate
human suffering. And what would the world look like then,
if every single one of us felt complete, felt whole, and felt interconnected? [Letting go] When you let go of individual survival,
all of your priorities change, because you actually see
the entire world as your body, you see the suffering of others
as your own suffering, and you want to help. And what is the actual power
of a human being to really benefit the world,
when they’re able to the priorities of the whole system
in front of themselves, even if that means
they have to die in the process? How many of us can do that right now? What if 7 billion of us did that? Maybe the one thing that keeps us from actually solving all
of the other problems in the world is this persistent flawed thought
that we are separate from the world. And maybe it’s time we change our minds. Thank you. (Applause)

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