Map of Science (and everything else)


The grand aim of science is to figure out
how it all works, which includes giant questions like: Where did the Universe come from? What is it really made of? How does all that stuff work and interact
with each other? And how is it that human intelligence exists
and is able to experience the Universe and probe it with our minds? You know, small stuff like that. Ever since someone stood underneath a starry
sky, looked up and went, ugh? people have been asking these questions. We can see forms of science as far back as
the ancient Mesopotamians and Egyptians, but the theory of science has its roots in philosophy
with the greek philosopher Aristotle being the first to think about how to actually go
about doing science. This methodology has been refined over the
ages and is now called the philosophy of science. This core of science is the scientific method
which contains principles like logic, rationalism, empiricism, evidence, testable hypotheses,
objectivity, and reductionism. This is the toolkit of science and helps us
process the information we get about the universe to work out what is and isn’t true. Mathematics and computer science are not technically
sciences because they don’t study the natural world, but they are very close to science
and are incredibly useful tools for scientists to use. Mathematics is the machinery of physics, and
it is kind of a mystery why mathematics describes the universe so well. Computers are used in all branches of science
because to do science you need a brain, and computers are an amazing tool to augment our
brains. The core of science is made of physics, chemistry
and biology, which contain a load of surrounding disciplines as well. I don’t have space to include them all,
but I have done in-depth maps of all of these subjects so check those out if you want to
find out more. If you take a step back and look at all of
science it is interesting to see how the scientific method changes as you apply it to different
subjects. Physics made huge amounts of progress to understand
the Universe through reductionism, breaking things apart into their smallest components
and understanding them one by one. But when you move up the chain towards chemistry
and biology, reductionism becomes increasingly difficult to apply because these subjects
deal with much more complex systems. If you want to study a part of biology, the
properties of a single thing are strongly defined by its relationships with everything
else. You can no longer study individual pieces
in isolation. Because removing them from their relationships
actually changes the thing you want to study. So there are so many complicated relationships
in things like how your genes in your DNA are expressed to make you, or how your neurons
and neurochemistry chemistry all combine to create the unique experience you are having
now. These systems emerge out of a massive number
of very complicated relationships and so capturing all of that complexity in one model is incredibly
hard. In fact as we get further and further up the
chain away from physics, the entire scientific method starts breaking apart. You can see this in fields like nutrition
and psychology where incredibly important historical results are looking increasingly
questionable like eating saturated fat leading to high cholesterol, or how it is hard to
replicate the results of many famous psychology studies like willpower being a limited resource. But I think that these mistakes are understandable
because trying to come up with a scientific theory that explains, why people do the things
that people do is just a very hard thing to do because people are… complicated! And, in fact there is an argument that the
human brain is the most complex system that we know about in the Universe! And so when you get a load of those to together
doing stuff, like in sociology, it just gets, it just gets crazy. Which brings us to the social sciences which
I have arranged vaguely from more sciency to less sciency. These subjects often contain a mixture of
scientific practices and practices from the humanities, like archeology which uses hard
science techniques from physics to detect structures under the ground, or carbon date
objects, but then the interpretation of what this evidence tells us about the humans that
lived at that time becomes a lot more subjective. Or in fields like economics or political science
where people can apply rigorous statistical techniques to their data, but then the interpretation
of those has to be done by a human brain who is by nature subjective. So the proof that the interpretations are
not scientific is the fact that they can’t predict the future. So in economics it seems we can’t predict
when a recession is going to happen, or what bitcoin is going to do tomorrow, whereas in
physics, if I throw a ball, I can describe the future of that ball incredibly well. But please note that I’m not saying that
subjectivity is necessarily a bad thing. If you’re studying a subject matter that
has these very complex system in them, and you have taken the scientific method to its
breaking point, what else are you going to do, subjectivity really is all you have left. But the trouble comes when it is not recognised
or flagged appropriately, people think they are being objective when they are actually
being subjective, and that does happen. But this is foricing people to innovate with
the scientific method and come up with new techniques to deal with these systems. One example from history are randomised controlled
trials in the pharmaceutical industry to really tell if a drug is working or not and with
the recent replication crisis in the social science, scientists are now trying to come
up with new techniques and methodologies to deal with these complicated systems. And it is a very hard challenge, but that’s
how you progress. But if you want to get at the truth of something
in the world, the scientific method is still our best way of doing that. But now lets carry on our journey and leave
the burden of scientific rigour behind us and move into the arts, a place of pure subjectivity. Is this good art? Well I like it. Okay. The one thing they do share with science is
exploration, pushing the limits of what has been done or thought before. They explore the human condition through books,
movies, music, art and are always trying to find new ways of reflecting on what it is
to be alive, and a human with emotions and a brain with the ability to create. And I think it is just as well we can’t
explain all of those things with science because they would loose all of their charm. That intangible nature is what makes them
so much fun. Some of the most enduring art has tackled
the biggest questions like what is it to be a human? Why are we here? And what should we do with our time here? These are very similar to where we started
and brings us right back to the other side of philosophy. So I got a bit carried away this map isn’t
really a map of science, it is a map of human endeavour. And it isn’t even a map, but a giant cosmic
doughnut of knowledge! Anyway, that’s it. Thanks for watching, and if you want to get
hold of the donut of knowledge, check out the link in the description below to get a
poster. And if you yourself want to learn some science
I’d recommend checking out the sponsor to this video brilliant dot org. It is a website where you learn a lot of the
core concepts in this map, like mathematics, computer science, physics and many more. And you learn them by answering questions
so, in general, when you’re learning a subject you might feel like you know it but there
is only one way to make sure and that is by actually answering questions to test your
knowledge that is using the scientific method on yourself. So that is what you do on brilliant dot org,
you learn by answering questions, but they are fun and engaging they are very satisfying
when you get one right and if you get one wrong there is lots of help and descriptions
to help you work out why. So if that sounds interesting check out brilliant.org/dos
, link is also in the description below. And as an added bonus the first two hundred
people to sign up can get a twenty percent discount of the annual premium membership,
which unlocks all of their content. So check that out. And also we’ve just released the next in
the professor astro cat books which is the space rockets book. So if you have got a youngster in your like
who you’d like to get into science at a young age they are a really good place to
start, link is also in the description below. Well that’s it for me, thanks so much for
watching and I’ll see you on the next video.

100 Comments

  1. Tikus Keriting

    December 29, 2018 at 5:19 am

    how about scientology?

  2. MaDayan

    December 29, 2018 at 7:47 am

    Map of Economics please!

  3. איתי סמואלוב

    December 29, 2018 at 9:44 pm

    How the hell social science takes more space than physics?!

  4. Luiz Henrique Morais Mazzucco

    December 30, 2018 at 10:40 pm

    POR FAVOR ALGUÉM TRADUZ PRO PORTUGUÊS BRASIL

  5. Luiz Henrique Morais Mazzucco

    December 30, 2018 at 10:49 pm

    O que e/ou Quantas vezes tenho que curtir para curtir YouTube!?
    Melhora esse botão!

  6. utkarsh agrawal

    December 31, 2018 at 10:03 pm

    please make a video on " map of machine learning / artificial intelligence ". Thanks.

  7. Gloria Sun

    January 2, 2019 at 6:36 am

    i think you need a Chinese commercial agency

  8. Matheus -

    January 3, 2019 at 1:05 am

    What software was used to make this video?

  9. Lara McDonald

    January 3, 2019 at 12:05 pm

    Could you make a video about Cognitive Science?

  10. Daft Funk

    January 7, 2019 at 6:36 am

    As soons as i saw those purple parts appear i stopped watching out of fear for what i may find

  11. Маргарита Бтаева

    January 10, 2019 at 8:13 pm

    It's inspiring) idea: this map needs links (like in Wikipedia)
    It would be more comfortable
    So, people want to explore
    And it's really a great job to show a basic COMPLETED knowledge, the overall picture
    details… are important too
    Creat WEBSITE!

  12. marklvrd

    January 15, 2019 at 4:01 am

    You have sort of a Jim Halpert aura about you in your expressions, quite funny lol.

  13. Solanki Kirpalsinh

    January 16, 2019 at 12:29 pm

    Excellent

  14. Revan176

    January 17, 2019 at 9:27 am

    Isn't holisim also a part of modern science method? Especially in the regions of science, where reductionism fails?

  15. Raul Betancur

    January 22, 2019 at 8:58 pm

    subjetivity IS A REALLY BAD THING when is comunicated as a the truth, Like in politics and religion. That´s why I think World must be ruled by people with scientific behavior.

  16. Jorge Garcia

    January 30, 2019 at 6:07 am

    excelentes sus selecciones. Muchas Gracias.

  17. L Daniel

    January 30, 2019 at 10:21 am

    Stop saying complexity

  18. Shadi Wahb

    January 30, 2019 at 6:21 pm

    Map of engineering?

  19. ok

    February 1, 2019 at 2:47 am

    art may not be science, but science is definitely art.

    Not by definition this is just me trying to be poetic lmao

  20. Galaxis

    February 3, 2019 at 1:29 am

    It's not just that humans are complex, but maybe you could say complicated by the fact that we're also variable. So, all life forms are similar, but they are quite variable. Thus, learning a lesson about one type of organism does not necessarily tell us about another. Hence torturing mice endlessly does not quickly nor reliably lead us to cures for human ailments, even if it does help us learn how things work more generally. Conversely, when we learn something about physics, particularly when we've gotten down to the really small scale, we assume that it applies everywhere all over the universe. So, humans are really just a physics problem. What we know about physics applies, but the complexity of an individual human and the variability of all humans is throwing us off.

  21. Жан Рено

    February 5, 2019 at 3:23 pm

    it is better to add some structure here

  22. AkhilReddy Goli

    February 11, 2019 at 5:11 pm

    Map of Economics Please

  23. Vitor Queiroz

    February 12, 2019 at 12:06 am

    Bota legenda em português

  24. Mick Mickymick

    February 12, 2019 at 12:26 am

    I guess someone will always disagree but Linguistics is more scientific than political science, which is like a branch of sociology. In my experience, sociology is extremely unscientific though I admit that could be just the authors I've read on the topic, sociology is like an unscientific social psychology.

  25. Franciszek Stefanek

    February 15, 2019 at 4:11 pm

    A map of psychology would be beautiful

  26. The268170

    February 16, 2019 at 10:39 pm

    That one was weird, I liked it!

  27. myHuge249

    February 18, 2019 at 4:08 am

    dont you mean the coffee cup of knowledge

  28. Jalon Retamal

    February 19, 2019 at 3:28 pm

    Make one about engenieering.

  29. Starlessbooks

    February 20, 2019 at 7:50 am

    Do you think you’ll do a map of psyc or the social sciences more broadly?

  30. A77 fih

    February 20, 2019 at 4:47 pm

    Add a D and there you got a DDoS

  31. Timothy Shrooze

    February 26, 2019 at 11:12 am

    I feel a more adept expression of this idea would be a graph, as in a political compass kind of thing, where subjectivity/objectivity is graphed against simplicity/complexity.
    However I do like how he related the Arts back to philosophy, as it is clear they have both a similar origin and thought process behind them, and it all demonstrates how fascinating the human mind is to think in circles while developing a number of fields along the donut.

  32. Trinity Gold Media

    February 26, 2019 at 7:12 pm

    HAHAHAHA!!!! The doughnut of Knowledge Cat!!

  33. JOAQUIN RUBIO

    February 27, 2019 at 9:29 pm

    Social sciences such as economics are different from natural sciences in the fact that they move by goals (teleology) and not by causes (causality) as natural sciences do. That's because in the natural field there exists regularity, reason why hypothetical-deductive method (scientific method) works, and its progress is based on falsacionism as Popper explain. In contrast, in human action doesn't exist such thing as regularity just because human beings act deliberately. That's why any approach to human action sciences from the "scientific method" fails roundly, and that's why it hasn't progressed as consistently as natural sciences did. Its propper method is the aprioristic (math's one).

  34. Андрей Заварин

    March 2, 2019 at 9:08 pm

    Gender science is pseudoscience. It shouldn not be on the map.

  35. with a kiwi on top

    March 3, 2019 at 8:21 pm

    You phrased the problems we faced and still face in sociology today so incredibly well! In society, the natural sciences are often perceived as the 'real' sciences while the social sciences are constantly faced with the pressure to legitimate themselves as sciences in the first place. And at the same time, we question ourselves too, rethinking the concept of what makes science scientific, especially when there is no real way to ultimately prove your findings. It's so hard to explore human behavior when you can never be sure whether your conclusions are really 'true' or just false conceptions you made up in your mind. Thank you so much for not only recognizing that problem but also explaining it so well in this video (let alone being a natural scientist yourself), showing that it's not a problem of oneself or the social sciences, but instead origins in human behavior as it is! Really appreciate the effort going into this video, much love from a German sociologist! 🙂

  36. сергей ильинских

    March 4, 2019 at 3:25 am

    a map of schizophrenia, syndrome-Kandinsky-Klerambo, -medicines, – psychiatry. Waiting for an answer . Best regards, Sergei.

  37. сергей ильинских

    March 4, 2019 at 3:26 am

    Make a map of schizophrenia, -Sandroma-Kandinsky-Clerambo, -medicine, – Psychiatry. Waiting answer. Best regards, Sergei.

  38. Daniel Frazier

    March 7, 2019 at 1:29 pm

    Ide like to witness your rendition of a map of law and a map of american politics, world politics.

  39. Hu Jason

    March 19, 2019 at 2:28 am

    you are soooooo cuuuute! marry me! hahahahahhaha

  40. Hu Jason

    March 19, 2019 at 2:45 am

    and you have sence of humour, it's like… nearly perfect!

  41. Altair Evercroft

    March 21, 2019 at 4:41 am

    Map of Engineering/Technology please!

  42. undergamer :D

    March 29, 2019 at 8:10 am

    this video helped me with my assignment.

  43. SAHADEVAN PUVILOJAN

    March 30, 2019 at 8:49 am

    Why don't u try map of medicine

  44. Planet X

    March 31, 2019 at 9:54 am

    which software do you use for animation?

  45. Alex Alt

    April 9, 2019 at 5:34 pm

    Woah when the ethereal music came on At 7:28 I thought there was a jet flying over my house and it made me panic and rip out my head phones

    Not cool dude

  46. Devin Simmons

    April 11, 2019 at 1:57 am

    This map is incredibly intuitive and masterfully organized. Great upload!

  47. Ananda Rossy Kurniawan

    April 11, 2019 at 12:47 pm

    Excuse me, Sir. Can I know, what Software do you use to make the video ?

  48. Kronus

    April 11, 2019 at 6:08 pm

    I disagree with you on the economics part. Same can go both ways you know, we can predict what will happen if a new tax is introduced, but in chemistry you can't predict the position of an electron. Please, as a man of science please refrain from making such sweeping statements.

  49. Klyde

    April 13, 2019 at 3:42 pm

    A L L H A I L T H E D O N U T O F K N O W L E D G E

  50. General Malaise

    April 14, 2019 at 6:47 am

    Your mom's bloody sweater.

  51. Deeshti Hujoory

    April 14, 2019 at 2:19 pm

    ugh?

  52. Rafa Sinhoroto

    April 15, 2019 at 12:35 pm

    thumbs up for the giant cosmic doughnut of knowledge!

  53. Vtron

    April 20, 2019 at 1:55 am

    This was a good start, but I think that it is limiting trying to make this into a ring shape, as well as putting some fields in opposite sides when they usually have many things in common, such as economics which is pretty much a social science, but has mathematical elements inside of it, and philosophy, which has applications in so many fields that I think it should be in the center of the diagram. In fact, I think that I should be the equator between the hemispheres of subjectivity and objectivity since it could go either way.

  54. Adam Nemeth

    April 20, 2019 at 7:39 pm

    I think Physics -> Cosmology -> Astronomy -> Geology -> Evolutionary Biology -> Archeology -> History could have been another "axis" of this map – as Modern Physics and Cosmology became the general overarching subject of all historical sciences.

  55. Gabriel Mello

    April 21, 2019 at 3:10 am

    How dare you put "gender studies" as a social science

  56. JustinQuiksilver

    April 23, 2019 at 10:52 am

    Where is the map of economics !?

  57. Henry Herkula

    April 29, 2019 at 10:29 am

    I am a little bit disappointed, that video games or games in general don't get a spot on the donut. :/

  58. Ashraf Al-junaid

    May 1, 2019 at 12:07 am

    This video made me so sad. My life is too short i could never learn even the crumbs of this donut

  59. Yashas P Kerekombe

    May 6, 2019 at 3:32 am

    Map of statistics please!!!!!

  60. Damián Vergara

    May 7, 2019 at 2:12 am

    Im waiting for the engineering map since i was born

  61. Agustín González

    May 7, 2019 at 2:46 am

    Yeah… I still don't know what career to study at college

  62. Nimrat Sandhu

    May 8, 2019 at 1:02 am

    Map of art

  63. Syed Muhamed Basheer

    May 12, 2019 at 2:14 am

    science is everything it's just wonderful, i love science

  64. Anton bcyzkik

    May 14, 2019 at 2:02 am

    Good thing chemistry isn’t important

  65. simdimdim12

    May 22, 2019 at 9:08 pm

    Will there be a map of machine learning?

  66. Lucas EverGrowth

    May 29, 2019 at 9:09 pm

    Can You do a map of geography please!!! Like a split between physical (core science) and human (social science)

  67. La Tana Di Kosky

    June 3, 2019 at 4:16 pm

    An in depth map of economics would be much appreciated 🙂

  68. Lakhanpal Singh

    June 4, 2019 at 7:31 am

    Nice explaination

  69. Lakhanpal Singh

    June 4, 2019 at 7:33 am

    But few subjects are there which can't be classified. Like half part of Geography, know as Physical Geography, is a Natural Science (Earth science) but other half is Human Geography is a Social Science.

  70. seqingnicole

    June 4, 2019 at 3:28 pm

    4:08 aww

  71. Atomix

    June 6, 2019 at 11:46 am

    Do the map of electronics

  72. Ferdinand Fisher

    June 7, 2019 at 4:51 am

    I always cringe when I see 'Gender studies' taken seriously, especially by 'science' people. What ridiculous nonsense is happening in the world..

  73. nia

    June 14, 2019 at 12:12 am

    this man is so gorgeous omg

  74. Duy Nguyễn Khương

    June 14, 2019 at 11:57 am

    Please beautify your VOICE !

  75. Jin Won

    June 18, 2019 at 7:38 am

    I enjoy your "map of" videos so much. Thank you for sharing and please share more of those in more academics like philosophy 🙂

  76. pedro lucas

    June 18, 2019 at 10:32 am

    Many thanks for the video and caption in Portuguese!

  77. Pucakee

    June 20, 2019 at 9:45 pm

    Wait gender studies is a science?

  78. J Bay

    June 21, 2019 at 6:07 am

    Gender studies isn't science at all

  79. Blaine Allen

    June 27, 2019 at 11:21 pm

    1:45 In the future, please spell "neuroscience" correctly.

  80. Matthew Theobald

    July 1, 2019 at 1:54 am

    As an artist I would like to point out that there is a massive amount of objectivity within it. It is only in recent times that modern art has become very subjective and philosophical. Things like 1,2 and 3 point perspective are objective. Anatomy and form are objective. Lighting and shadow are objective. Basically look at ancient Greek paintings and marble status and this is the objective world of art. It only becomes subjective when using art to send a message or being very stylistic with your design. A lot of artist, myself included, don't even recognize modern art as true art at all. Stuff like paint splatter on a canvas or rocks stacked on top of each other. It's all done to basically be 'edgy' in the art world.

  81. Aleksa Janic

    July 1, 2019 at 9:32 pm

    Is the length of the video really a coincidence?

    Yes, yes it most likely is.

  82. Eureka L

    July 2, 2019 at 4:33 pm

    Objectification? Yeah, I make tool out of you 😓 yeah, I am riding on a bolt of lightning ⚡️

  83. Cody Weber

    July 3, 2019 at 9:26 pm

    Except you forgot religion which is near philosophy.

  84. BigDvsRL

    July 5, 2019 at 3:01 pm

    hahahhaha AMAZING Map and the perfect fitting Music xDDDD

  85. Lamiaa Hajji

    July 7, 2019 at 12:15 am

    Map of Astronomy pleaaaase

  86. Eli

    July 8, 2019 at 1:36 pm

    Social science is the brain studying itself and how it interacts with other brains. Our brain power limit is also the limit of our understanding of science.

  87. subhrat praharaj

    July 11, 2019 at 6:18 am

    A map of mechanical engineering/electrical engineering would be very good as u have a map of computer science video too.

  88. Jeffrey Ernst

    July 13, 2019 at 2:42 pm

    Beautiful, fellow entity, rock on brother… J

  89. InsertName

    July 13, 2019 at 11:31 pm

    No homo my dude but holy shit you have beautiful eyes and i love your eyebrows

  90. nAnDo kOsMiK pRoDuKtIoNs

    July 14, 2019 at 3:51 pm

    I LOVE, absolutely LOVE this «massive.cosmic 'doughnut' of knowledge» that is your «Map of Science». I especially LOVE your including the "Arts" in this "Map of Science"! Brilliant! Awesome! I've never seen or heard ANYONE "connect the dots" as beautifully and wonderfully as you do. If the people behind TED haven't contacted you yet to do a TEDTalk and/or publish ALL your wonderful "maps" in TED book form, I'd be very surprised. I believe your maps should required viewing for every student in the world. Thank you. Please, more, more, more "maps"!!! 😉👍😁 👏👍👏

  91. Platinum Diamond

    July 16, 2019 at 2:51 pm

    map of my ass. Please!!!

  92. Sheik Abdinasir

    July 17, 2019 at 4:14 am

    History is 100 percent right
    Science is not

  93. Carlos Silva

    July 28, 2019 at 2:07 am

    I dont believe that i heard the word philosophy in this video

  94. Michael Offner

    July 28, 2019 at 2:42 pm

    Think you could ever do a map of art?

  95. Fake Freud

    July 31, 2019 at 8:52 am

    There are well established psychological theories out there. Yes, ego depletion theory has many flaws and may be incorrect, but we do have accurate ones about development, learning, and memory. I think neuroscience is going to be the math of psychology one day. I can't wait until we have the equipment to science the s***t out of psychology.

  96. Random Guy

    August 7, 2019 at 4:57 pm

    1:09 | And where was it ever written that sciene has to be about the natural world? Sure, the defintion we usually use as science is the natural sciences, but I like to think as science simply as knowledge about stuff.

  97. TurboDieselDan

    August 11, 2019 at 2:34 pm

    News flash fat doesn't make you fat. Its carb's and sugar that will make you obese. Nobody ever lost weight stuffing their faces with fat free Skittles, Licorice, popcorn, Snackwells and frozen yogurt.

  98. ashtonal

    August 18, 2019 at 1:32 pm

    « gender studies » is ideology not science

  99. chinmay Swain

    August 30, 2019 at 2:05 pm

    Amazing 😍👌

  100. Gab Cab

    September 1, 2019 at 3:22 am

    At the base of all this knowledge lies philosophy.

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