## How Much Information is in the Universe? | Space Time

1. #### Iridescent ink

Interesting a black hole contains the maximum storage capacity as the beckenstein principle. Along with near on infinite gravity and 1 billion rpm. It gives an idea to maximum capacity. So is it a simulation given it has an upper boundary with physics laws being constraints?

So if the universe contains more information than the bekenstien bound it would collapse so what would happen if it contained less than the bekenstien bound demands

3. #### Dagobah 359

7:53 "It's event horizon is around 12 billion meters." Do you mean the radius of the event horizon?

4. #### Joe OConnor

All energy is in constant distribution and transformation

5. #### Setekh

I don't know. But my android phone could probably run those sweet Sagittarius black hole graphics as a live wallpaper! Please make that happen!

6. #### David Lloyd-Jones

To be or not to be. One bit.
The rest is fluff.

7. #### Nandodando

What's the difference between a black hole the size of the observable universe and nothing?
Being outside of it would show the black hole? Direction of non occupied space would be different? (Like a different shape empty container?).

8. #### Peace PL

Its not about size, its all about action caused by energy thats make info.

9. #### William Barksdale

middle out compression, for sure

10. #### тарас булатецкий

All you need to simulate the universe is a power to simulate one single human mind in its motion. The quastion of posdibility to simulate is quite close to solipsism.

15:49 yeah! That!!

12. #### yyeeeyy yey

Wait, what if I put a bunch of negative energy and positive energy particles in a region of space, in such a way that the total energy in that area remains zero. Wouldn't that increase the amount of information in that region? Would it be possible, with enough of these particles, to exced the limit for information in that volume and make a black hole with zero mass?

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14. #### ThatGuy Man

What if the universe uses ternary instead of binary?

15. #### dart200

this is all assuming the universe is finite. which if not, all these arguments kind of go out the window.

i see no reason to assume the universe is actually finite, or why we would assume the determined 'visible universe' is somehow a reasonable size to be using.

it's kind of just an arbitrary size that relates to how far light has traveled since our calculations tell us the universe started, and not much else.

16. #### Benjamin Webb

Without using math I can somewhat understand a light years vastness.
You must use analogies not 10 to the power of whatever, that's for a mathematician. Use something like how small something is compared to an atom will better help people understand how small something is.

17. #### Frank Derks

The universe has a radius?. That implies that earth is in the center. We need another Galileo to correct this mistake.

18. #### rpbsjy

After May 25th, 2018, the universe was given the right to have its information erased on request. Those gnomes from Brussels didn't think that one through, did they?

19. #### Jonathan Balanoff

Serious question: Are emotions quantum information? Do they take up space in the universe? Could we break the beckenstein bound one day with too many humans having too many thoughts?

20. #### Richard Linter

There is something wonky about drawing ultimate conclusions about the cosmos when our instrumental probes are still ten orders of magnitude away from the Planck scale. The paper referred to at 10:19 is well worth reading, even so. But it's a review article. There are others, more cautious in approach.

One accessible viewpoint would be a transcription of a keynote speech by Feynman (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 21, 467 (1982)) on "Simulating Physics with Computers ". A reason is that Feynman established some ground rules early on. You can find a transcription at http://doc.cat-v.org/feynman/simulating-physics/simulating-physics-with-computers.pdf.
That is easily the most readable early discussion; and there he explains a deep link with "No hidden variables" and the EPR paradox.

Feynman especially compares and contrasts quantum computing with the same issues (simulating probabilistic physics) as on a "Universal" computer, remarks that a quantum computer is "not a Turing machine, but a machine of a different kind", and ends with cautionary tales about his fights with Fredkin, about reaching too far with theory. He ends:
"All these things
suggest that it's really true, somehow, that the physical world is representable

in a discretized way, because every time you get into a bind like [discretizing a continuum],
you discover that the experiment does just what's necessary to escape the trouble that would come if the electric field went to zero, or you'd never be able to see a star beyond a certain distance, because the field would have gotten below the number of digits that your world can carry."
I can just imagine him yelling that, in his broad Brooklyn lecture voice.

Can we encourage readers to look at other authors, who covered similar ground very much earlier than 2001? Lloyd's review is a good effort. But it cites earlier, fuller expositions including his own published in "Nature". Remarkably, the reference (number two of 43) is quite bare, quoting no volume of page number, just the year published (2000).
(At a guess, Lloyd's cited article is "Ultimate physical limits to computation", volume 406, pages 1047 through 1054, which in turn cites the pantheon of computational physics, notably Landauer, Feynman, and Deutsch.)

Finally, it behooves us to be careful of drawing quasi-religious conclusions from the admittedly fascinating discussion presented. For one thing, PBS does a good job of explaining how a universe can be simulated by a computer it contains. (Spoiler: can do it by taking extra time). But discussing the number of operations per second of a computer simulating a universe in real time, one which must surely sit outside that universe, is a little off – even if I can think of workarounds, such as changes in photon state as a clock-tick.

21. #### batmanbutbetter

Are we talking RAM or hard drive?

22. #### nosuchthing8

Thumbs down. We don't know how deep the rabbit hole goes. How deep is the particle hierarchy? Maybe infinite.

9:14 Almost clicked onto the next video here.

24. #### Tone Trent

I understood nothing. But thanks for your effort

25. #### Melo Boy

The universe looks shopped. I can tell from some of the pixels and from seeing quite a few shops in my time

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27. #### Narret

What do you call information? For all the information that does "exist" in our universe can be reinterpreted to information that doesn't exist. To this point, it is not only the number of combinations held within the informations, but also the number of interpretations from it. So it could very well be infinite.

28. #### Debraj Chakraborty

CERN LHC experiment needs 10 to 12 times more energy to create situation at big b theory but as far quantum computer simulation if Human is quantum program than his vision realisation is restricted to speed of light and law's of thermodynamics but it's a grand superiority of His ability of Cosmic knowing but it's a grand stands of Science particularly Spacetime

29. #### Debraj Chakraborty

Space time geometry is infinitely complicated on which Physics applied but after this infinitely complex facts it's sublime exquisite infinite Beauty

30. #### Noriel Sylvire

You don't need to count for every pixel (Planck Length) in the universe
You could probably do fine by just defining each particle and it's intrinsic parameters for example:

Lepton Electron1 = new Electron;
Electron1.pos = vec4(x, y, z, t)
Electron1.spin = true

And so on
What I mean is you don't need to define each empty Planck Cube aka don't store information that doesn't exist

But you only need the information that is accessible by intelligent being in the simulation. Why render unobservable vistas? Supernovas that explode with out an audience should be ignored.

32. #### Jack Heart

All of it is.

https://atomled4rdart.webs.com/quantumgravityart.htm

35. #### Captain Caveman

If the universe is a hologram why would it be expanding, as we are told it is, and not steady state.

36. #### Rotten Brainz

never ending story!!!

37. #### LeBozzx8

What if we live in a Black hole?

38. #### redd70714zova

So is dark matter considered information….

39. #### Gregory Manning

Okay, I propose that he was right in assuming he's under estimating the amount of information from each Plank unit in approaching this with classic bits. The reason the final number seems to small is your starting point is wrong. Replace bits with qubits per Plank unit. A qubit is capable of storing more than one state at a time while a bit is a classical binary expression of a single variable with only two options, on or off. Qubits are much better suited to information storage in a quantum field, though what the "limit" would be is likely defined by one of the physics constants.

As just a short sighted example, if the qubit storing data for each plank length had a queue depth of 32 bits in parallel, your final calculation makes a monster jump up, making the universe far too large to store in a device smaller than it without using a deeper qubit depth than reality itself on the storage media. The limit on whether the universe's entire information catalogue could be stored on a device smaller than the universe would then hinge on superior quantum storage density than reality itself offers currently. The requirement then is to create qubits with a depth greater than whatever depth of qubit the universe itself offers naturally in order to make such media. Such a "hyper-dense" qubit may not even be possible.

40. #### Państwo Piesto

Why did you assume that the smallest 3d planck is cube shaped?

41. #### Hüseyin Dama

No one know only God , because no mater how much you discover information , you cant be sure whether there is more informaion or not , because we are limited creatures so only God who is unlimited can know

42. #### Lorigulf Noldor

So that's why brain is like many-folded sheet then? The name of the game is surface, not volume? But how much info could then brain-like many-times-folded-over black hole hold?

43. #### TheOutLaw Carpenter

I try to bend my mind a round the "black hole " and now there asking me to pull data out of it. Is that cat 5 wire I have to run?

44. #### GabrielHellborne

Wait! If the universe is a Sim running on someone's Turing machine, how the hell do you simulate Heisenberg's uncertainty principle?

45. #### Diego Pazos

I don't get how they intend to represent the whole deal with 1 bit per Planck volume. Wouldn't they need to at least store the levels for all 17 quantum fields?

46. #### JoeMat Olivares

Can you help me on this? How come that the radius of the universe is 47 billion light years whereas the age of the universe is only 14 billion years. Did the universe expand faster than light can travel? But nothing travels faster than light? Thanks in advance

47. #### Lance Tschirhart

The radius of the universe should be should be 14 billion or so plus some more perhaps, from dark energy acceleration. Is dark energy the only cause of this huge discrepancy between our universe and a stably expanding one? I always thought that the CMB was only 13.8 billion light years away, not 47, and my world made sense, and I felt safe, like in my own safe little fact-womb. Perhaps the radius is 47 billion light years according to our calculations, which show the background is more than three times as far away as it appears(?)

48. #### Duncan Thaw

So basically Black Holes are just the areas with extremely high lag.

49. #### Karl Miller

All the information squeezed into a tiny space =black hole 🕳

50. #### Baruch Ben-David

How much information is in the Universe? All of it, I'd say.

51. #### MojoRevelation

Did you mean rest of the galaxy at 8:08? I doubt "the Milky Way's black has as much entropy and hidden information as the rest of the universe" seeing as there are other black holes out there at the center of other galaxies. Some of them are going to be larger than the one in the Milky Way with more entropy and information.

52. #### Anmol Srivastava

Didn't expect the channel to grow by 50% in just 6 months

How to program your matrix with Matt

54. #### Hunter Hofmann

At 9:15 when he says Space Time I started looking for a new video to watch thinking it was the end but it definitely wasn’t.

55. #### The Spam

After that video, my life is resumed in one thing… 10 to the power of something…

56. #### Nathaniel Barrett

Twice as long as half as long

57. #### blubastud

Of the radius of the universe is 47 billion light years wouldn't that mean that the universe had expanded faster than the speed of light? I only say this because I thought the estimated age of the universe was less than 47 billion years

58. #### malzone

What is consciousness if this universe is projected from a lower dimension? In a hologram, each unit contains information about light from every point; each unit encapsulates the whole. Is consciousness thus intrinsic to the entire universe? Or in other words, shouldn't there be a certain level of emergence no matter the scale? Something else that leads me to this question is the fact that our universe is fractal, meaning, from the macrocosm to the microcosm, self-similar patterns repeat themselves. Take the golden ratio for instance, its found within the spiral arms of galaxies all the way down to the petals of flowers and even ourselves. In short, with this in mind, is it too far-fetched to say that our consciousness is a holographic temporal fractal and can be found on every scale of the universe? Perhaps I'm letting my existentialism get the best of me, open-minded feedback appreciated.

59. #### SmartK8

If you associate information with IT or computers than it would seem like Universe is a simulation. But if you consider information (or degrees of) is the Universe it makes a perfect sense that computers would have to be based on that.. and also humans and also physics and well.. simply everything. If Universe was a Tetris then everything would be using blocks.

60. #### Willy Illuminatoz

I know, the simulator will generate new heaven and earth as upgrade version of current universe.. believe me.. lols

61. #### Russell Williams

Can I correctly assume that the Nash equilibrium based pathways of game theory are somehow the governing dynamics that animate our reality from the underlying quantum fields through a lexicographical computation akin to Conway's game of Life? Please advise. Thank you

62. #### Yves Gomes

Black holes troll the RAM.

63. #### John O.

black holes are bloatware.

64. #### Louis-David Doyon

If information is about surface area, information is 2D and not 3D?

65. #### Michael Coulter

Something doesn't add up. If information can neither be created or destroyed, then when the universe was very small it had a small surface area and thus a very limited amount of information and we have that same amount of information today. Doesn't add up.

66. #### N

This channel helps me fall asleep at night, it also fuels my dreams/nightmares. I'm hoping to wake up with a PhD one day.

If the universe is infinite, then wouldn't there be a scale where there is more information in it than its Bekenstein bound? The stuff in the chosen volume increase by r^3 and the Bekenstein bound increases only with r^2, so it would be surpassed at some point, right?

68. #### ALT SOLUTIONS LIMITED

The information is unlimited growing constantly.

69. #### ryan sunnervillr

Isn’t the universe also there we just change the size of the Observable universe! Two very different things???

70. #### joseph smith

Using balls and a long road showing size and space kinda gives the lamans a understanding of actual distances and sizes i found it very sobering when i showed this to my cousin and the distances got far and quick using correct scale say a basketball for earth and a baseball for the moon by the time u try to factor the sun ur beyond walking distance on any actual useful scale

71. #### Hemagicmp

Soo the earth is flat???

72. #### Freeda Peeple

How much information is in the universe? All of it, of course.

73. #### medexamtoolsdotcom

3:22 OVERESTIMATES, not underestimates.

74. #### Jacob Romano

5:32 Am I the only one who appreciates the nod to Silicon Valley?

75. #### Cole Washington

If this is a simulation you could use redundant sections all over the universe to save HUGE about information. "empty" space would be repeated trillions of times over and probably simulate the exact nature of the actual universe with 99.99999999999% accuracy.

76. #### Lavalambtron

Not enough for a quantum computer to compute anything.

77. #### Robert Soley

did this guy age 50 years during the course of the vid.

78. #### Free MGTOW

Your Definition of Information totally ignores our observable Information on the astral plane as well as the Information that is stored in the Sub conscious minds of living beings.

79. #### G Nistor

Lol… How you can talk so much for nothingness 😂.. The space is a hoax… The earth is flat
.. Mesured flat the water does not curve the moon landing is a hoax un repetitive 😂😉. Puppeteers loves to play with stupidity 😂🙃

80. #### RocketRunner2099

4:08 Beautiful, "what's a few orders of magnitude between friends"

81. #### Joe Previdi

Serious question: could somebody please explain to me how information content can be proportional to surface area when that would imply you can fit more information on a weirdly shaped (non-convex) blob inside a sphere than you can fit in the sphere itself? As long as you don't require the shape be convex, there is no bound on the surface area of a shape you can fit inside a cube, sphere, etc. Does the surface area argument apply only to convex shapes, or does the resolution lie elsewhere? Or is it really true that one volume can contain more information than another volume which contains it?

82. #### Fabrizio Giordano

So the answer is right in front of our eyes, nothing say that we can't live in a black hole, in fact, the space is expanding faster then light, so we know for sure there's something, in a rotating black hole, if the rotation matches the spin and the forces I guess everything inside is moving slower, and the changes of the spin and rotation of black holes changes the inicial state of the universe inside the black hole, the one we can not see, I think if we go the center of the universe we could experience strong gravitation warps, or I'm wrong and is been proved already that we don't live in a black hole, I don't know, is just what I think

83. #### Alex

I usually watch these kind of videos to release some of the entropy in my head, but at the end of the video I feel like a black hole. 😝

84. #### Richard Deese

I saw a commercial yesterday. At the end, it said, "Call now for more entropy." Rikki Tikki.

85. #### Stay Tuned

Hold on, where was there ever "information" in the universe?
Im ignorant.
Oh, trick question, how Much info can the universe hold? 😒

86. #### desconcerto

so you're trying to put the universe in a .rar file?

87. #### Janusha

This depends 100% on what you call "information"

88. #### Jari Haukilahti

Maybe the adding and growing dark energy is just equlizing the missing information to fill up the up the size of universe , maybe Im delerious ,sry.

89. #### John Leal

How can you measure the "diameter" of the universe or the "radius" of a black hole?. As an analogy: The distance between mi town to the nearest by road trough the mountains is very much longer than the line connecting the two towns. The distance between galaxies include the deformation of the space due to the gravity of mass objects in between? At the moment of the creation of a black hole, just before the horizon emerge, how can you calculate the radius of the star if the space inside the star is infinitely curved?

All of it.

91. #### Chill X

Hoe much space time bend?
Is there limit how massive blackhole could be?
Could unknown ridicilously massive blackhole bend trough the spacetime maiking big bang.

92. #### Lord Va_Der

The brief sigh into "rather a large amount of particles" was golden

93. #### Gromph Baenre

ahh i see…..this is the reason why the 30 days free trial of winzip are unlimited….

94. #### Fif0l

So you're telling me, Menger's cube contains more information than a sphere that contains it.
That doesn't sound right…

95. #### rjw elsinga

BLACK SHELL HYPOTHESIS

a black hole has NO interior, it is a spherical 'end' of space-time held up by surface tension. the event horizon is a shell of Planck-length sized areas that each hold the maximum amount of information such an area can hold. (one could call it a Beckenstein-shell)

_ note 1: i have a hunch that info-maxed-out spacetime voxels _ can ONLY be stacked in 2D arrangements and not in 3D packings.

_ note 2: i suspect information can not travel through an info-maxed-out voxel. a maxed out spacetime voxel needs an adjacent not-maxed-out voxel to keep it linked to existence/the cosmos.

RECYCLED ( BLACK HOLE ) ENERGY HYPOTHESIS

dark energy, the energy that drives cosmic expansion is in fact recycled information that is deleted from black holes at the moment of their creation and growth in size (the black shells). after deletion, the information returns to the cosmos in random locations in the shape of fresh new spacetime. thus the overall AMOUNT of information in the cosmos remains constant.

Could it be that the universe is increasing in size because the amount of information in it is increasing?

97. #### esrA eloH

Everything in the universe is just sprites.

Universe simulator in Minecraft….

98. #### Pierre Tssnt

So increasing the entropy of the universe, we could transform it into a black hole and so stop (and even reverse) its expansion 🤔👍🤓 Nice

99. #### Aset Bilibaev

No need to simulate the whole universe with all the plank bits of information. Suffice to simulate information flow through a someone’s “mind”. Everything else can be computed on an on demand basis. In the meantime let it all be in an uncertain state, let’s call it a superposition. All you need is to keep the new information processed be always in line with the previous one, even if you need to overwrite a backload history of events (hello, the delayed choice quantum eraser experiment)

100. #### Dan Sanger

I can completely describe the universe using just one bit. That bit has a value of 1 if the state is just like our universe and 0 if it isn't.