Discounting in Applied Behavior Analysis | BCBA Study Guide


hi my name is May Beaubrun and I’m a board
certified behavior analyst with Brett DiNovi & associates and in this video
I’ll be talking about discounting and how it’s associated to problem behaviors
and some general treatment recommendations for impulsive ‘ti for a
more general overview on discounting check out our video by my colleague
Heather Francisco so what is this county discounting is when rewards lose their
value as a result of the delay and worse they received the rate of the delay of
discounting is how fast reward loses this value is termed as delayed
discounting discounting has a significant impact on choice making
especially how delay the consequences so now let’s talk about decision making
this isn’t making when making a decision one may or may not forego small
immediate gains for larger Wars in the future when it’s time to make that
choice some examples are whether or not to study for an exam eat healthier be
more active get a better night’s sleep or save money one of the things
associated with discounting is the hyperbolic equation by mathur and the
article that came out in 1987 basically talks about an equation which is v
equals a divided by 1 plus KD what does it all mean okay it’s a sensitivity to
change in the delay or discounting in other words the larger degree of
discounting the K the quicker the discounted value decreases over time for
example would you rather wait one day they get $10 or wait a year to get
$1,000 so how does this all relate to problem behavior the pom behaviors I’ll
be discussing your gambling high risk sexual behaviors ultra-violet indoor
tanning and obesity Pacific myth gambling research suggests delay
discounting indicated that gamblers discount delayed rewards more steeply
than control participants the sensitivity to changes in the delay or
discounting were significantly higher for gamblers better for the control
group so gamblers were not willing to forego small immediate gains for larger
future games therefore they’re willing to bet large quantities of money will
jewelry cars or homes or other valuables also according to research individuals
who are impulsive with money are likely to be impulsive with alcohol and
cigarettes as well research also supports that higher discounting for
individuals who have addictions now let’s talk about discounting and
high-risk sexual behaviors primary reinforcers including sexual intercourse
are discounted steeper than conditioned reinforcers for example waiting to
access find and wear a condom are delays to accessing that
reinforcement as a primary reinforcer sex is discounted steeper therefore
people forgo practicing safe sex despite the risk associated with unprotected
sexual activity for another problem behavior associated with discounting is
the use of ultraviolet indoor tanning beds there’s growing research that that
suggests the ultraviolent indoor tanning beds are addictive and there’s a link
between indoor ultraviolet indoor tanning and skin cancers and melanoma
there remains no consensus on how to identify ultraviolet indoor tanning
addictive tendencies in the reader a tall article they used a tanning
purchasing task which was a self-report questionnaire regarding hypothetical
ultraviolet indoor tanning scenarios what they found was the demand for a
tanning package was relatively lower when the price for tanning packages was
framed per minute as opposed to per session
these are important implications for policy makers for advertising and
pricing government should consider requiring tanning establishments to
display the tinted packages per minute rather than per session the last problem
behavior I’ll be discussing is obesity food insecure individuals are concerned
or don’t know where their next meal is coming from food insecure individuals
are more likely to purchase us expensive foods that are higher in sugar fat and
refined carbohydrates as opposed to fruits vegetables or other high protein
foods as a result food insecure individuals especially those who are
obese exhibit more impulsive food choice patterns than food secure individuals in
the Henrickson remson article they propose mindful eating as a
behavioral strategy to eat more slowly and deliberately now let’s discuss some
treatment recommendations for children and adults who exhibit poor impulse
control treatment research for children suggests that children with impulse
control response a small immediate reinforcing items activities such as
access to food or television or attention
treatment recommendation for children with poor impulse control his use of
visual cues to indicate when the desired or request that item or activity will
become available current recommendations for adults with impulse control problem
suggest token economy systems and response costs were effective
contingency management strategies to decrease aggressive behaviors and adults
in the criminal justice system according to the Gendreau a tall article please
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1 Comment

  1. Yodit Reinhold

    November 11, 2019 at 7:10 pm

    I am wondering how this might work/ be used with individuals the use of electronics is highly reinforcing?

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