Alchemy: History of Science #10

These days, alchemy gets a bad rap. In fantasy stories, charlatans in fancy robes
promise to turn lead into gold. But real alchemists weren’t just mystical
misers. They were skilled experimentalists, backed
by theories of matter. And they played a huge role in the development
of knowledge about one of our fundamental questions: “what is stuff?” Do chemists today spend a lot of time trying
to turn lead into gold? No—but, in part they are the inheritors of a
wealth of knowledge created by alchemists who were trying to turn lead into gold! Why did they keep doing that? Did they really think it would work? Was it some science experiment? Or a religious ritual? Yes! All of those things. Today, we’ll meet some alchemists and consider
just what the heck they were doing all day with metals, and how they sought to understand
stuff. [Intro Music Plays] The word “alchemy,” which is where we
get the word “chemistry” from, is a bit of mystery. It might mean “the black earth,” symbolizing
Egypt, but it might not. Either way, all of these words were used in
Europe before 1600 to describe the same system. Let’s define alchemy as a way of thinking
philosophically about stuff by changing it. This included older astrological ideas alongside
new ones derived from experiment and observation. Alchemy parallels the Scholastic medical tradition
we looked at last time. Both systems spanned across Eurasia and relied
on books. But the alchemists had different social norms,
or ideas about how someone creating knowledge should act. Alchemists did publish books, but typically
encoded their philosophies in complicated allegories, or stories wherein the characters
and actions stand for something other than what they appear. This essentially rendered whole alchemical
systems secret except to their own friends. They used code words called Decknamen: so
“tin” might literally mean the metal tin in one book, but serve as a code word for
silver in another. The books were illustrated, but many of the
images were symbols masking their true meanings. The good and bad thing about the Decknamen
system was that anyone could read any proto-scientific treatise on “what is stuff?” and come
away with almost any conclusion. Good thing today we have the internet to help everyone agree on scientific questions based on evidence… right? A lot of alchemical books focused on transmutation,
or changing metals into other metals. In theory—all the way back to Aristotle—transmutation
mimicked a natural process: metals were compounds, formed deep in the earth when different quantities
of sulfur and mercury were crushed together. Miners had been working with metals for years—digging
them up and then heating them to purify them. The difference for alchemists though was that
transmutation meant “hacking” this whole process by doing it artificially. But… the alchemical metals are not compounds
of anything—they’re elements! So how did the alchemists take non-compounds
and “read” them as compounds? The alchemists had problems obtaining pure
samples. When they heated up chunks of metal, these
would bubble and change color based on impurities, meaning tiny bits of other elements. But, alas—metals, when isolated, don’t
actually break down into sulphur and mercury. There were two kinds of alchemical metals:
the noble metals were gold, which represented the sun. And silver, which represented the moon. The base metals included mercury, which represented
the planet Mercury, copper for Venus, iron for warlike Mars, tin for Jupiter, and lead
for slow sad Saturn. In fact, our name for the metal “mercury”
comes from this alchemical association with the Greek messenger god! Agents of transmutation also fell into two
categories: particulars, which only did one thing—for example, change copper into silver—and
universals, meaning the “philosopher’s stone.” That’s philosopher’s stone—no sorcerers
involved, American Harry Potter. This mysterious stone could change any base
metal into gold. The quest for the universal transmutation
agent was called chrysopoeia, or, literally, “make into gold.” To get started, a “chrysopoeian” would
combine the right ingredients in an egg-shaped vessel called an alembic, and then heat the
mixture up for a long time. What were the right ingredients to make the
philosopher’s stone? Alchemists disagreed. The fact that they didn’t even agree on
what the philosopher’s stone actually was, pretty much symbolizes the whole system. Chrysopoeia required fine-tuning the practice
of metallurgy: alchemists had to heat ingredients for days on end, controlling the temperature
precisely without the aid of modern lab equipment, or even a thermometer! It was difficult, sweaty work. Eventually, the mix of ingredients would turn
black, then white, then yellow, and finally red. At this point, if your oven hadn’t exploded—you
won! You now had a lump of red substance that,
when heated up with base metals, changed them into gold. Supposedly. The search for the philosopher’s stone produced
new alchemical theories and felt like a wonder, inspiring generations of experimenters, even
if it never quite “worked.” Alchemy persisted because transmutation clearly
produced something, including new compounds. The problem is that we don’t always know
what it produced, because of the whole secret code thing. “Luna fixa”, for example, was a dense
white metal, that was corrosion resistant, had a high melting point, and was pretty soft. Was it platinum, white gold, or something
else entirely? But alchemy was never only about metals. The human body, for example, was understood
as an alchemical workshop: chemical reactions happened in the organs,
transmuting one kind of stuff into another. This is still pretty amazing! We eat stuff that is not at all human—at
least hopefully—and then that stuff somehow becomes us. In an alchemical framework, illnesses were
reactions gone wrong. So while the alchemists included metallurgists,
mine directors, goldsmiths, and natural philosophers, they were often physicians, interested in making efficacious compounds
called pharmaceuticals, or chematria. In fact, alchemy was a system for producing
useful materials from chematria to alcohol, alloys, pigments, perfumes, and cleaning products. Noblewomen alchemists, tasked with caring
for the health of the workers in their husbands’ manors, played a major role in producing therapeutics. These noblewomen set up production facilities—proto-labs—and
expanded the repertoire of alchemical products which could be sold. And the system itself was heavily gendered,
metaphorically, which we can see in many gorgeous illustrations of allegorical kings and queens
of heaven, the kings and queens of stuff. One of the wackier life-sciencey practices
that came out of the ancient and medieval search to understand therapeutic compounds was palingenesis, or “life again”: the
idea that you could bring things back to life by burning them, and then freezing their ashes. Alchemists spent a lot of time burning and
freezing leaves. Did palingenesis work? Why don’t you go try it and see if you get
better results!? At least, it might make you pay careful attention
to living things and what stuff they seem to be made out of. On second thought I’m not gonna encourage you to go burn stuff. Just as there are multiple sciences today,
there were multiple “alchemies” in medieval Eurasia. Chinese alchemy was tied into ideas about
the earth itself. Remember how, in Chinese natural philosophy,
the earth was one living organism? Chinese alchemists detected its vital channels
of energy transmission using magnets, formalizing that system of earth magic called feng shui. This work eventually led to the invention
of gunpowder. Chinese alchemy also included a search for
immortality called waidan. But still no “sorcerers,” sadly. Mostly, waidan was about self-experimentation
and diet. Indian alchemy focused on medicine, on forms
of mercury, and on how to preserve health and hopefully create an undecayable body. We’ve talked before about how an Ayurvedic
textbook or samhita had a whole chapter on aphrodisiacs and another on toxicology. Alchemy supplied a way of developing these
love potions and poisons. Islamicate alchemy, meanwhile, blended Aristotelian,
Chinese, and Indian alchemical practices. Jābir ibn Hayyān, born in Persia in 721
and known in Europe as “Geber”, was credited with authoring three thousand
texts! These included a version of the Emerald Tablet,
a supposedly ancient Greek text that included a guide to creating the philosopher’s stone. Hayyan also worked on mineralogy, transmutation,
and medicinal elixirs and invented new equipment. Like many alchemists, Hayyan often wrote allegorically,
trying in his own words to intentionally “baffle” most readers except those “whom God loves.” But the person most famous today for his work
in alchemy is the Swiss physician and iconoclast Paracelsus, born in 1493, who also was called Theophrastus
Bombastus von Hohenheim. Think Gregory House meets Victor Frankenstein
meets Miss Cleo. In addition to his general irascibility, Paracelsus
is famous today for the phrase “the dose makes the poison.” Paracelsus also believed that the philosopher’s
stone was a “universal solvent” called the alkahest, which was derived from lime, alcohol, and
carbonate of potash and could theoretically dissolve anything, even gold. And, most radically, Paracelsus introduced
salt as a third element that made up all metals. Paracelsus was a critic of university natural
philosophers and physicians. He saw these Scholastics as likely to mistake
textual generalizations for truths. He admonished his alchemical colleagues not
to trust the words of the ancient masters. But then he became a master himself—someone
you could write books in the style of. You could say that alchemy, like other knowledge-making
systems, was torn between text and experiment— that is, between loyalty to tradition and
iconoclasm, and a return to basic observation. Thus, even if alchemical books were often
secret-concealing gibberish, they were important in supporting a long-term
rational debate about the true nature of stuff. In fact, the most famous product of alchemy
was a wondrous invention that most people don’t think of as alchemical. Help us out, ThoughtBubble: Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg,
born in Germany in 1468, was a metallurgist who invented a process for mass producing
movable type. Gutenberg made his type from an alloy of lead,
tin, and antimony, creating a more durable system. He also pioneered working with oil-based ink
and made tweaks to the common cheese press to make his printing press. His real achievement, though, was bringing
all of these together into a system that made printing books economical. And I mean way more economical than having
rooms full of monks hand-copying manuscripts. Economical printing meant better-duplicated
texts with fewer errors.! Knowledge circulated not simply thanks to
personal travel, which was slow and somewhat random, but as discrete knowledge. Some of this knowledge was intentionally secret
code—which presents a problem for historians today. How do we figure out what the alchemists meant
when they wrote things like, “The wind blows over the marriage of the moon and Saturn?” How do we interpret alchemical recipes encoded
entirely in pictures? Thanks Thought Bubble! So what happened to alchemy? Parts of it became chemistry, which we’ll
get to later. But alchemy also became increasingly seen
as dirty, dangerous, unsavory, low-class, and lacking a classical pedigree, unlike,
say, astronomy. And, in Europe, alchemy was tied to a geocentric
cosmology that goes out of fashion in the sixteenth century. There were notable alchemists in the seventeenth
century, including Isaac Newton. But by this time, chemists wanted a more scientific
society. Publicly, alchemy was attacked as superstition,
even as practitioners keep doing it in private. Alchemy went underground for most of the eighteenth
century, maintained in secret societies, before dying out. The once-famous book De re metallica, or Concerning
the Nature of Metals, was first translated into English by classicist Herbert Hoover— who was also a president—and his wife, Lou
Henry Hoover, in 1912. Fascinating! Next time—pack your mortarboard hats and
masonry tools: we’re tracking the rise of the university and the cathedral! Crash Course History of Science is filmed
in the Dr. Cheryl C. Kinney studio in Missoula, Montana and it’s made with the help of all
this nice people and our animation team is Thought Cafe. Crash Course is a Complexly production. If you wanna keep imagining the world complexly
with us, you can check out some of our other channels
like Scishow, Sexplanations, and Healthcare Triage. And, if you’d like to keep Crash Course
free for everybody, forever, you can support the series at Patreon; a crowdfunding platform
that allows you to support the content you love. Thank you to all of our patrons for making
Crash Course possible with their continued support.


  1. max salah

    May 18, 2019 at 2:07 am

    Jabir Ibn Hayaan is the father of chemistry

  2. Bronk Tug

    May 19, 2019 at 1:09 am

    If you’re interested in this, search for Terence McKenna, definitely more informative and more interesting

  3. Akash Gondwal

    May 19, 2019 at 1:39 pm

    Bro u watching full metal alchemist lately🤔

  4. Alex White

    May 20, 2019 at 7:00 am

    3:36: that’s a Roman god not a Greek one. Greek is Hermès

  5. Alex White

    May 20, 2019 at 7:03 am



  6. Hunter6213

    May 20, 2019 at 4:49 pm

    Western alchemy: I gonna make a "Philosopher's Stone", to make me rich as hell and live forever! (But get poisoned by mercury)
    Chinese alchemy: I'll make some elixir of longevity! To make my majesty live forever! (But it turns out to make the emperor dies faster)

  7. Zack Akai

    May 24, 2019 at 6:06 am


  8. SRV. 123

    May 25, 2019 at 1:34 am

    Women alchemists focused on poisons. Imagine how many animals were used to experiment, By all Alchemists.

  9. MC

    May 26, 2019 at 2:55 pm

    Everyone here is either a nerd or someone who is a weeb.

  10. Ramen-king1243

    May 30, 2019 at 4:09 am

    Why do you want the philosopher’s stone. Edward Elric : to get our bodies back

  11. Mubashir Sidiki

    June 1, 2019 at 10:25 pm

    jabir bin hayan is still the father of alchemy

  12. T K

    June 4, 2019 at 2:21 am

    3:46 Edward Elric entered the chat

  13. Halil_XG

    June 6, 2019 at 1:56 pm

    Isn't Alchemy an arabic word??

  14. ic

    June 7, 2019 at 8:02 pm

    8:38 It’s the Hohenheim of Light 😮.

  15. Joe Mama

    June 10, 2019 at 6:31 pm

    That hohenhiem is eds dad in full metal

  16. Brianne Prokopij

    June 14, 2019 at 2:29 pm

    5:05 big brother ed

  17. Ari art and stuff

    June 15, 2019 at 3:44 am

    Everyone talking about full metal alchemist
    And im here like, V aR i a N!

  18. Tiniya

    June 15, 2019 at 10:21 am

    Not a single person came here out of interest? Not because of *FMA*?

    Look who's talking?😒
    The one that came here after watching *FMA*!😂

  19. six of hoes

    June 21, 2019 at 10:29 am

    i’ve seen them in so many books but idk what they are lmao

  20. Dan-The-Man

    June 23, 2019 at 5:09 pm

    No references or cute crashcourse style drawings of FMA makes me mad! haha

  21. Alejandro Olivas

    June 24, 2019 at 4:43 pm

    Genetic engineering is alchemy in disguise

  22. TheeTurkey79

    June 25, 2019 at 8:32 am

    The Alchemists won in the end…
    Google the Brookhaven atom smasher

  23. Marc Schneider

    July 1, 2019 at 12:14 am

    I wanted to throw up while watching this ! Your treating Alchemy with the atmost disrespect, only cause you don't know anything about it

  24. Jewels Okike

    July 1, 2019 at 1:20 pm

    Alchemy vs Transference. Alchemy represent change. Transference is similar in that one behavior is modified by the people or situation (environment). For example: If I usually do the dishes and he takes out the trash then the reverse happens well that's a change. The feminine became the masculine.

  25. Jewels Okike

    July 1, 2019 at 1:22 pm

    Someone one else may disagree with gender specific roles but it is kind of standard depending on how your raised and culture belief.

  26. Jewels Okike

    July 1, 2019 at 1:26 pm

    You don't have to change to understand a person feelings. I don't think. Or what is the reason for the change?

  27. Actual Argonian

    July 4, 2019 at 3:31 am

    Anyone read that book called “the alchemist”?

  28. Strictly Educational Magick

    July 5, 2019 at 7:52 am

    Alchemy is the Hebrew Biblical word for WAR

  29. Fuck You Google Plus

    July 8, 2019 at 9:38 pm

    So let me get this straight.

    It was an alchemist that invented gunpowder.
    It was an alchemist that invented the printing press.
    It was an alchemist that discovered the laws of gravity.

    These are arguably 3 of the most revolutionary things that have ever altered human history. Yet ironically alchemy was flushed out for being superstitious and shifty.

  30. Astralisk

    July 8, 2019 at 11:05 pm

    Alchemy: the science of understanding, deconstructing, and reconstructing matter. However, it is not an all-powerful art. It is impossible to create something out of nothing. If one wishes to obtain something, something of equal value must be given. This is the law of equivalent exchange; the basis of all alchemy. In accordance to this law, there is a taboo among alchemists. Human transmutation is strictly forbidden. For what could equal the value of a human soul?

  31. Lyssa's Straykids Sad Hours

    July 9, 2019 at 7:21 am

    Everlasting Alchemists? Anime lover.

  32. The Requiem

    July 10, 2019 at 4:56 am

    You can’t just use a Human Transmutation Circle without me noticing

  33. rakkiappan Mariappan

    July 12, 2019 at 12:57 pm

    வணக்கம் உலகத்தில் தற்போது பேச்சு வழக்கில் உள்ள மொழிகளில் தமிழ் மொழியில் தான் பல்லாயிரக்கணக்கான ரச வேதைகள் சம்பந்தப்பட்ட அதாவது ரசவாதம் சம்பந்தப்பட்ட நூல்கள் சித்தர்களால் இயற்றப்பட்டுள்ளன இது வெறுமனே தங்கம் செய்வதற்கு மட்டுமல்லாமல் இந்த உடலையே தங்கமாக அதாவது அழியாத பொருளாக மாற்றுவதற்கான வழி முறைகளையே ரசவாத வித்தை அடிப்படையாகக் கொண்டது இக்கலையின் தோற்றம் வரையறுக்கப் படவில்லை என்றாலும் இந்த கலையை சுமார் 15 ஆயிரம் ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன்பாகவே தமிழகத்தில் வளர்ந்து வாழ்ந்து கொண்டிருக்கிறது அந்நியப் படையெடுப்பினாலும் வேறு சில சூழ்நிலைகளாலும் தற்போது அக்கலை மட்டுப்படுத்தப்பட்டு இருக்கிறதே ஒழிய இன்றும் தமிழர்கள் மத்தியில் குறிப்பாக தமிழ் மருத்துவர்கள் மத்தியில் இந்த ரசவாதம் தொடர்பான கலைகள் பரவலாக பேசப்பட்டும் விவாதிக்கப்பட்டும் செயல்பாட்டிலும் உள்ளன என்பதை தெரிவித்துக் கொள்கின்றேன்

  34. grndragon7777777

    July 13, 2019 at 12:01 am

    Ooohhh metallica

  35. Benno Lee

    July 17, 2019 at 6:43 pm

    Crash Course: Alchemy when?

  36. Alan Choi Chang

    July 18, 2019 at 11:54 pm

    hank, yaay


    July 21, 2019 at 3:10 am

    777 comments when I came woooooooooooooow a sign!

  38. AcceptMe

    July 22, 2019 at 6:18 am

    All esoteric traditions were meant to communicate techniques of metallurgy. In the past, forging a better alloy meant domination in the battlefield and ensured the continuation of your empire. It is shrouded in symbolism to hide the true nature of such publications so that outsiders only see an invocation of the supernatural. In reality you had to be trained in specific circles to extract anything meaningful from such pamphlets.

    Remember: an adept by definition is: “one who has attained the secret of transmuting metal”.

  39. Sloth Demon

    July 22, 2019 at 9:20 pm

    So, what I got out of this is that Alchemy wasn't a myth practiced by equally mythical sorcerers. But a somewhat widespread term for many early sciences?

  40. Akrami El Azzouzi

    July 26, 2019 at 6:21 am

    Bro the world alchemy came from arabic ( kimiya)

  41. Sarath S

    July 27, 2019 at 12:30 pm

    4:11 you don't want to know

  42. Sartorius Kryzzt

    July 30, 2019 at 12:10 pm

    So… alchemy can be used to produce really healthy things and really deadly things. Then someone made a book separating the healthy from the unhealthy. The unhealthy one is the one that makes medicine in pharmacies with all the dangerous side effects. The healthy one is the one doctors are losing their jobs over. Got it.

  43. Keylup Veintisiete

    July 31, 2019 at 7:26 am

    Secret concealing gibberish? Dude, you are completely missing the point. What about the psychological perspective? The transformation of man: the process of individuation. These people did make experiments with "stuff" but it was mostly a research about the unspeakable, the internal reality, consciousness and the spirit (the stone that rose with the wind, or how inert matter became conscious as human beings and what is consciousness itself, this is pure psychology) yes, there are a lot of metaphors and analogies, but try thinking harder and dont reject it just because it isnt obvious or literal and you cant do a better research to understand it. They knew about the subconscious way before freud they just had different names for it like Mercury quicksilver or argentum vivum and when you actually approach it with an open mind it makes a LOT of sense, how are you supposed to speak about the spirit, something you cant see touch or even find in the brain (not as in ghosts, they meant the psyche, please dont be so naive) but with analogies with the material world. You should really expand your resesearch because GIBBERISH? Thats very disrespectful for an ancient discipline that has a lot to offer, I recommend reading Carl Jung at least for a start. Im very disappointed of this channel and hope you make a follow up video Secret concealing gibberish? Dude, you are completely missing the point. What about the psychological perspective? The transformation of man: the process of individuation. These people did make experiments with "stuff" but it was mostly a research about the unspeakable, the internal reality, consciousness and the spirit (the stone that rose with the wind, or how inert matter became conscious as human beings and what is consciousness itself, this is pure psychology) yes, there are a lot of metaphors and analogies, but try thinking harder and dont reject it just because it isnt obvious or literal and you cant do a better research to understand it. They knew about the subconscious way before freud they just had different names for it like Mercury quicksilver or argentum vivum and when you actually approach it with an open mind it makes a LOT of sense, how are you supposed to speak about the spirit, something you cant see touch or even find in the brain (not as in ghosts, they meant the psyche, please dont be so naive) but with analogies with the material world. You should really expand your resesearch because GIBBERISH? Thats very disrespectful for an ancient discipline that has a lot to offer, I recommend reading Carl Jung at least for a start. Im very disappointed of this channel and hope you make a follow up video. Im sorry man, but I expected more of this channel, if you dont have the interest to make a proper research at least dont make a video bashing and mocking the wisdom of these people and spreading misinformation.

  44. saver menu cheeseburger at McDonalds

    July 31, 2019 at 9:25 pm

    Here after full metal alchemist

  45. saver menu cheeseburger at McDonalds

    July 31, 2019 at 9:27 pm

    Can you use it to get your body back?

  46. daniel sparks

    August 6, 2019 at 2:05 pm

    Dont get me wrong the metal/element talk is cool. Let's talk about blowing loads into glass jars and bleeding on it now

  47. Harry stadier

    August 7, 2019 at 3:59 pm

    Like Humpty Dumpty. Mary had a Little lamb. There's always a reason for things

  48. Alex Sunderland

    August 8, 2019 at 12:44 pm


  49. Beau James Erion

    August 9, 2019 at 1:01 am

    Seriously not a a single mention of tabula smaragdina? (Emerald tablet) too much obsession with gold apparently

  50. Marc Schneider

    August 10, 2019 at 12:39 am

    3:33 Mercury * the roman messanger good not greek ! In Greek his called Hermes, sometimes refered to as Hermes Trismegistus

  51. Patric Hausammann

    August 13, 2019 at 11:11 pm

    😅 And where are the "humunculi"? 🤣

  52. xSamura

    August 17, 2019 at 2:13 pm

    Can you make a video about gemstones and crystals i want to have a better perspective of this topic from this channel

  53. Sammy Kleem

    August 18, 2019 at 8:56 am

    OK I feel dumb guys and gals I wanna see full metal alchemist anime now, I have no clue, I watch Dragon Ball Z religiously though lol |⊙|

  54. ryan veira

    August 22, 2019 at 2:37 pm


  55. Mister Moon

    August 30, 2019 at 1:33 am

    If we take a look at the chakra system:

    7 – 🌑 [Spirit]/[Conscious]
    6 – Seeing/Visualizing
    5 – Hearing/Speaking
    4 – 🌍 [Heart]/[SubConscious]
    3 – 🌞 [Soul]/[UnConscious]
    2 – Positive
    1 – Negative

    It shows that we are capable of two energy motions in the stomach that produces feelings when applied to thoughts.

    So when combining the two elements spirit and soul arises a new form in the subconscious.

  56. Insaneking 97

    August 31, 2019 at 12:42 pm

    If you can make gold wouldn’t you keep it a Secret

  57. MechaBlade

    September 1, 2019 at 11:30 pm

    Anyone else see the FMA reference at 5:06?

  58. Feral the Earthworm

    September 12, 2019 at 9:34 am

    mercury was roman, hermes was greek

  59. Leroy Meeuwissen

    September 12, 2019 at 9:45 pm

    And so it has come to pass, from ash to ash, once more you rise, o Phoenix of the past.

  60. Kevin Gutierrez

    September 13, 2019 at 1:02 am

    Fullmetal alchemist is correct, you need something of equal value to change one thing to another thing, equivalent exchange, and deconstruction and reconstruction to be able to make something different. For example, to make wooden axe, you just need a piece of wood large enough and there you go, a wooden axe.

  61. Linda Vilma Ole

    September 13, 2019 at 11:58 am

    Alchemists' desire: to produce gold. Tinkering about the "ingredients" in gold-making made the alchemists (and us later) to have understanding of matter…

  62. C J

    September 13, 2019 at 7:33 pm

    Humankind cannot gain anything without first giving something in return. To obtain, something of equal value must be lost. That is alchemy's first law of Equivalent Exchange. In those days, we really believed that to be the world's one, and only truth.

  63. Shiggy

    September 17, 2019 at 10:19 pm

    5:08 you just had to make me cry

  64. Steven School Alchemy

    September 20, 2019 at 11:34 am


  65. Steven School Alchemy

    September 20, 2019 at 11:40 am

    Alchemy begins with a study of nature and a replication of natures processes within the earths crust but in the microcosm of the alchemist flask using natural products derived from nature. Alchemy is the science of kings and incorporates mathematics, astrology, science, metallurgy, medicine, etc.

  66. d3m3n70r

    September 24, 2019 at 1:46 pm

    Geocentric Cosmology moved from medieval Europe to modern US.Congratulations on the heritage.

  67. Taurus_Says_hi

    September 25, 2019 at 5:13 pm

    Al the Chemist

  68. matt farris

    September 27, 2019 at 5:03 am

    do do you need to take a f**** breath and slow down and stop trying to think that you're a genius just because you read something off of Q card

  69. matt farris

    September 27, 2019 at 5:06 am

    with all the stuff behind you on your shelves you seem like the type of guy to read something and act like you understand it but never make a profound Discovery and science itself I'd like to know what you actually contributed to science besides this video

  70. matt farris

    September 27, 2019 at 5:07 am

    This video literally just skips around a lot and makes no f**** sense

  71. Ibrahim Ahmad

    September 28, 2019 at 5:13 pm

    Anyone here from Dr.Stone?

  72. Theara X-Man

    October 4, 2019 at 8:34 am

    i became a fan of history of science bcoz of a certain Anime that inspired me called Dr.Stone….Peace

  73. Emanuel Lindberg

    October 4, 2019 at 3:07 pm

    5:08 that reference, stop just stop

  74. Taurus Capricorn

    October 5, 2019 at 4:38 am

    8:40 He's real??! FUll metal alchemist

  75. Sachin mathpathi

    October 5, 2019 at 9:46 pm

    it means we have to blow wind while mixing lead and silver

  76. Krystal Hyun

    October 7, 2019 at 4:08 pm

    5:08 at the bottom left..


  77. Shahsoft Inc.

    October 8, 2019 at 9:22 pm

    Ibn Haiyan is considered the father of chemistry for creating first scientific process such as water distillation

  78. Nikki Kirpestein

    October 16, 2019 at 5:17 am

    If you are a historian , you have to get back to astrology of all forms ( not only the western , which is beautifully mentioned in this video about Vedic/Indian and Chinese alchemy) ( astrology for the seasons of biological farming for example) to understand the metaphorical terms the alchemists are talking about. It’s a huge underestimated map people used back in the day. Because of the symbols and ways of speaking in their linguistic manners was way more connected to nature and spirituality.

  79. Ruska Jakeli

    October 21, 2019 at 10:01 pm

    All of you are making FMA references, are there no Baccano fans here to look into ways of making grand panacea?????????

  80. LEGOdawg2001

    October 22, 2019 at 5:07 am

    There was no way you could do this episode without an FMA reference

  81. Tomás Carreiro

    October 22, 2019 at 11:30 pm

    watching this and studying for toxicology, is just too awesome ahahah

  82. Nate Shade

    October 24, 2019 at 1:07 pm

    When I saw Nina and Alexander in the video I made big sad

  83. Paul Hunt

    October 26, 2019 at 2:21 pm

    since “gibberish” did pop up in this video, it’s a bummer that the etymological connection wasn’t explicitly made to the writings of Jabir/Gerber. 😢 always one of my favorite alchemical fun facts.

  84. Lpssunny Official

    October 27, 2019 at 9:02 pm

    This helps a lot with my gorny

  85. Artimus Protensor

    November 1, 2019 at 2:02 am

    Funny thing, today's nuclear science CAN turn lead into gold. The process costs far, far more than the gold is worth, but we can do it.

  86. Grim Reputation

    November 2, 2019 at 1:14 pm

    8:37 HOHENHEIM
    Edit: I'm studying alchemy because it's a interesting subject, and my grandmother says that it's witchcraft. Just like you said, it gets a bad rep. Just imagine the possibility of alchemy. Being able to shift, for example, atoms of co2 into oxygen, or hell, even H2o.

  87. Dragon - guy 0984

    November 2, 2019 at 11:13 pm

    5:06 How… how could you?

  88. Aaron Huntley

    November 8, 2019 at 7:26 pm

    Sounds like history repeats itself

  89. cjmp200

    November 12, 2019 at 7:26 am

    I’m over a year late but this is awesome. I must write that there is a side of alchemy though not called alchemy and you ever so lightly touched on it correlating another exact example of alchemy. The moon and Saturn makes perfect sense when you apply it objectively.

  90. Mehdi Salmaan

    November 13, 2019 at 11:00 am

    Alchemy comes from al-kimia (al = is arabic that means ‘the’ in english, and kimia = is a perisan word which means changing a substance to something more valuable)

  91. instagib783

    November 17, 2019 at 5:23 pm

    Bruh… I just thought of something. We scoff at past people and call them primitive.

    We are those past people compared to someone in the future. People will one day be mocking us and our practices.

  92. TheKittengoddess

    November 19, 2019 at 2:00 am

    The fact that they based their metals on the planets and didn't know what they were doing in the first place might be a hint to modern day alchemists that this might be a bit obsolete.

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