5 Videos on the Science of Memory

Do you smell that? It smells like…cinnamon? And … evergreen trees. It reminds me of something. It reminds me of…this video Hank made about
how smells trigger memories! You’re walking through the hardware store
one day when all of a sudden you catch a whiff of something you haven’t smelled in years. Somehow, the scent of glue immediately takes
you back to your kindergarten classroom, and you spend the next couple of minutes wondering
what happened to the kid who used to eat all that paste. You just experienced what’s known as an
odor-evoked autobiographical memory. To put it simply, a smell made you remember
something from your past. And it happened because of the way smells
and memories are hardwired into your brain. Lots of different cues, like sights or sounds
— or even just someone describing something — can trigger memories. But memories linked to smells are often stronger
and more vivid, and studies have shown that they also tend to be memories of your early
life — before you were ten years old. Which is weird, because adults usually experience
what’s known as a reminiscence bump, where they don’t remember much from before their
adolescence. But smells are really good at bringing those
memories back. These memories tend to be more perceptual,
rather than conceptual — so you remember a particular sensation, rather than a bunch
of facts about something that happened. And researchers have come up with some theories
why memories triggered by smells are so odd. There’s a big difference between the way
your body handles sight, sound, taste, and touch and the way it processes smells. Those other senses are all routed through
the thalamus , the part of your brain that sends them off to the appropriate processing
sensors. But smells bypass all that. Once they’re detected by receptors in your
nose, the signal heads straight to your olfactory bulb, the smell-analyzing region in your brain. And that area happens to be connected to the
amygdala and the hippocampus, which are the parts of your brain that help handle memory
and emotion. So it’s possible that when you smelled that
glue in kindergarten, the signal got tangled up with memories of building blocks and apple
juice. And when you smelled it again later, you remembered
not just the glue, but also some of the associated memories — like that weird, paste-eating
kid. In 2013, a group of European psychologists
tested this whole phenomenon using functional magnetic resonance imaging. First, they presented the subjects with 20
different strong, specific odors, like garlic, whiskey, and leather. Then, for each person, they identified the
two that elicited the oldest positive memories. Then it was time to scan their brains. Each subject was presented with their two
experimental smells, plus two generic, control smells — flowers and citrus. They were also shown verbal cues, which were
just the names of the smells projected onto a screen. The researchers found that both types of triggers
tended to activate the regions of the brain associated with memory. But while the verbal cues lit up parts of
the brain responsible for processing smells, the smells themselves were more strongly connected
to emotional processing centers. Some of the participants associated the smells
with memories from before they were ten, while others remembered things from when they were
between ten and twenty. And, depending on which time frame the memories
fell into, their brains tended to use different regions to recall them. The earlier memories lit up the orbitofrontal
cortex, which is connected to perception. The later ones, on the other hand, tended
to activate the left inferior frontal gyrus, which handles more conceptual memories. So, can you use your nose’s superpowers
to help you remember things for your next big exam? Well… probably not. Smells tend to evoke early, perceptive memories
of events, not random concepts. So the scent of glue might make you remember
playing with construction paper in kindergarten, but your smell-memory won’t help you memorize
Maxwell’s equations. Okay, so now we know why smells trigger memories, but that video also brings up so many other questions: I know how you can remember things, but how do you make memories? And why can I remember kindergarten, but I
can’t remember being a baby? And if smells can’t help me study for a
test, is there another way I can hack my memory? Check out these three videos from Hank, me,
and Olivia to answer these questions: How do you make memories? Inspirational websites will tell you to spend
time with the people you love. Travel websites will tell you to travel to
beautiful places. I’m just going to tell you to watch this
episode of SciShow over and over and over again until it actually sticks in there. But if you ask a neuroscientist, they might
tell you about a man named Henry Molaison. In 1953, Molaison had surgery to remove certain
parts of his brain, and lost his ability to form most kinds of long-term memory — changing our understanding of the human mind and memory forever. Up until the 1950s, we really had no idea
how the human brain could convert an experience into a memory that could be retrieved and
relived. Scientists had been trying to figure it out,
but they didn’t have access to fancy technology like fMRI scanners to let them look inside
living human brains. Based on what they did find out, from animal
studies and the brains of people who had died, they thought that memories might be stored
throughout the brain. That seemed to make sense, because patients
with injuries to different parts of their brains would sometimes develop amnesia. So they had no clue what they were about to
do to Henry Molaison. When Molaison was a kid, he hit his head while
riding his bike — and after that, he started having seizures. A lot of seizures — and severe ones. His doctors tried all kinds of different treatments,
but in 1953, he was 26 years old and none of those treatments had woked. But there was one more procedure that they
thought might help: a surgery to remove the part of his brain where the doctors thought
they seizures were coming from. So, they did the surgery, removing two finger-sized
pieces of brain tissue from Molaison’s left and right medial temporal lobes. The specific parts they took out? The hippocampus, amygdala, and part of the
entorhinal cortex. You might recognize some of those names, because
we now know that they’re really important parts of the brain. But at the time, doctors had no way of knowing
just how big a deal removing them was. When Molaison woke up, he could remember his
name and things that happened in his childhood, but he had what’s known as anterograde amnesia. Basically, he couldn’t form new memories
anymore. The doctors weren’t going to be able to
give him his memory back. But for the rest of Molaison’s life, they
tried to learn as much from him as they could. The main thing they found out was that the
hippocampus plays a big part in the formation and retention of certain kinds of memory. Researchers also learned that there are multiple
kinds of long-term memory, controlled by different parts of the brain. Long term memories are the memories we store
for long periods of time – basically, anything your brain retains after about 30 seconds. And there are two kinds of long term memories:
declarative, or explicit, and non-declarative, or implicit. Declarative memories are memories that require
conscious processing, and the kind that Molaison lost the ability to form. These include episodic memories — like the
memory of your eleventh birthday party — as well as semantic memories, which are the facts
and ideas. Non-declarative memories, on the other hand,
are memories of habit, like riding a bicycle or tying your shoes. After Molaison’s surgery, he couldn’t
learn new facts or remember new events. He’d meet a person and forget them as soon
as they walked out the door. But his doctors discovered that the different
kinds of long-term memory must depend on different brain structures, because Molaison could still
form non-declarative memories. For example, he could learn new motor skills,
like tracing a drawing he was looking at in a mirror, and his reaction times improved
with practice. For the rest of his life, Molaison was studied
by dozens of doctors. To protect his identity, he was referred to
as H.M. in publications. But after his death in 2008, his name was
publicly released for the first time, and the rest of the world began to understand
just how much he’d taught us. Even in death, Molaison continues to help
us learn more about the brain. His brain was donated to science, so researchers
could examine his brain more closely and better understand the effects of his surgery. At his death, his brain was removed and flash-frozen
before being cut into 2,401 microsections – super thin slices to be mounted on slides
for experimentation. These sections were used to make a 3D recreation
of his brain in 2014. From that, we’ve already discovered that
Molaison hadn’t actually lost his entire hippocampus removed – just most of it. But because it was cut off from the rest of
the memory systems by his injury, this small part of his hippocampus couldn’t help him
regain his memory. So, Molaison may not have been aware of just
how important he was to science. But his life and death are still teaching
us all about memory and the human brain. Remember that one time when you were a baby? No, of course you don’t. Because, if you’re a teenager or older,
chances are you can’t remember anything that happened before you were three. The process of forgetting these really early
memories is called childhood amnesia. It happens to pretty much everyone, and has
to do with the way our brains develop as we grow up. Childhood amnesia starts to set in between
the ripe old ages of eight and nine. Before then, most children can remember things
that happened when they were really young, like visiting family or winning a teddy bear
from one of those impossible carnival games. But the passage of time by itself isn’t
enough to explain childhood amnesia. After all, when you’re 30, you can remember
certain things that happened 20 years ago, when you were 10. But when you’re 20, you can’t remember
being an infant at all. Plus, we don’t forget everything from when
we were little. Some things, like the language or motor skills
that we pick up, stick with us. But we do tend to forget episodic memories
— memories of specific events and details. So scientists think that childhood amnesia
must have something to do with the way our brains change between infancy and adulthood. It turns out, some parts of our brains don’t
finish developing until long after we’re born. One of them is the hippocampus, which helps
us form and store episodic memories. Even as adults, our brains are always producing
new cells, called neurons, in the hippocampus. But when you were a young, growing child,
the brain produces a lot of new neurons a lot faster. So, to see how brain-cell growth affected
memory, a research team from Toronto took adult mice and experimentally made their hippocampuses
produce more new neurons. And it turned out that the mice became more
forgetful. They seemed to lose memories, just like humans
do with childhood amnesia. But when researchers slowed down the growth
of new brain cells in young mice, those mice seemed to forget less from their mousey childhoods. So the question is: Why would making new brain
cells be bad for your memory? Well, It’s not, in the long term, which
is why we can keep making new episodic memories as adults. But it seems like trying to fit all those
new neurons into your hippocampus when you’re young could cause a problem. The new neurons shuffle around with the old
ones to form new memory connections, and this could make it harder for the brain to find
where earlier memories were kept. It might even erase them completely. Still, not all of our memories are kept in
the hippocampus, so this doesn’t explain everything about childhood amnesia. There are other parts of the brain involved
in memory, including the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex. So scientists are studying these to see if
they also make different amounts of new neurons when we’re children, compared to when we’re
adults. We don’t fully understand childhood amnesia
yet, but we do know it happens to everyone. So if you can’t remember your first birthday
party, don’t worry. Neither can anyone else! Y’know those phrases that just seem to be
ingrained in your memory from middle school? Like: Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally ROY G. BIV Or, thirty days hath September, April, June,
and November. Sound familiar? These are different kinds of mnemonics — shortcuts
that we can use to help us remember stuff, like the order of operations, or the colors
of a rainbow. Turns out, there are lots of strategies to
remember information when you need it most. Take the mnemonic, My Very Educated Mother
Just Served Us Nachos. The first letter of each word stands for a
planet in our solar system, from Mercury to Neptune. Now, when you first think about it, mnemonics
like this don’t seem like a very helpful memory trick, because you have to remember
twice as much — like, a weird sentence plus all of the names of the planets. But that’s actually why they work. A simple way to think about memory is that
we store information — kinda like sticking a file in a filing cabinet, or those shelves
of orbs in Inside Out — until we recall, or remember, it later. And researchers studying how people learn
— like educational psychologists — suggest that recalling information can be easier when
it’s connected to other information you already know. So you can imagine this model of memory like
a web of files, where the ones with more connections are less likely to be lost, and easier to
recall. One influential theory, which was published
in The British Journal of Educational Psychology in 1976, put learning in terms of different
levels of processing. Basically, they suggest learning can fall
on a spectrum of surface-level processing — which is more like rapid-fire memorization
— to deeper processing — or, linking new information to an information network, which
leads to better recall. And with mnemonics, you’re making more of
these connections. Sometimes it’s between random bits of information
— like setting the periodic table to the tune of a song you know. But there are a lot of memory hacks that psychologists
have proposed over the years, and tested in research experiments. Not all of them will work for everyone in
every learning situation — there are just way too many variables in real life — but
they can be helpful. If you’re learning new words, you can try
using the Keyword Method — a term that was coined in the mid-1970s by researchers from
Stanford University, and studied frequently in the next couple decades. This mnemonic can help people learn words
in new languages, by connecting how a new word sounds to a keyword in English, for example. Then, the English keyword is linked to a strong
visual image that helps you recall what the new word means. So like in Spanish, say you’re trying to
learn the word “perro,” which means dog. You might pick the keyword pear, and imagine
a dog holding a pear in its mouth to connect the two. The Keyword Method could also help with more
complicated vocab in English — like, when you think of the word “melancholy,” you
can picture a sad melon to remember the meaning. But what if you’re more of a spatial, visual
learner? Then, you can use a technique known as the
Method of Loci [low-sigh], which was first described by ancient Greek and Roman texts,
and studied by psychologists from the 1960s until now. This strategy allows you to create a kind
of “mind palace,” where you mentally walk through rooms in a building or some other
familiar spaces — the loci. Along the way, you can visualize things like
symbols that represent key points in a speech you’re gonna give, or meeting the U.S. presidents
in order. So when it comes to school, trying to memorize one fact at a time might not be the best study strategy. Instead, it might help to connect that new
information to other things you learned, or even make some kind of story out of it. And finally there’s chunking, a theory first
proposed by a Harvard psychologist in 1956 that’s still studied today. It’s basically when you learn a whole bunch
of information and organize it into chunks that make sense: Like, instead of trying to memorize a sequence
of 8 separate numbers, say 1-7-8-2-2-0-1-4, you can break it into two chunks that sound
like years, 1782 and 2014. So it feels like you have fewer individual
things to remember, and it’s easier to store and recall more information. And with more and more exposure to the information
you’re trying to learn, like when you’re studying, the larger the chunks of connected
information can become. There’s no replacement for paying attention
in class, taking good notes, and spending time studying when it comes to learning. But if you’re having a little trouble remembering
stuff, you might be able to use some mnemonics. Because, sometimes, we need all the help we can get! Mnemonics! I knew there was a way to help remember things! But that reminds me…Can you really “train”
your brain with those games? Here’s one more video about that very topic. Exercising your muscles helps keep your body
strong and healthy, which is why lots of people think your brain works in the same way. There are so-called “brain training” games
out there that say they’ll improve your memory, attention, and reasoning skills — and
eventually make your brain faster and healthier. Some even claim to help prevent the onset
of dementia Problem is, they don’t really work. Brain training, or cognitive training, claims
to rely on neuroplasticity — the idea that the connections between neurons in your brain
are plastic and changeable, and can adapt to new things. For years, scientists thought only the developing
brain was flexible that way, but they eventually figured out that even though many connections
do become fixed during childhood, the adult brain is still surprisingly flexible. Studies on dementia and the aging brain show
that losing that plasticity leads to cognitive decline, so brain training programs claim
to stop — or even reverse — the loss by flexing your brain like a muscle. And we’ve known for a long time that practicing
a specific task makes you get better at it – like how the different levels of Mario Kart
might get easier the more times you play them. The question was whether playing these games
can make you better at doing other, real-life things, like remembering names and appointments. In 2008, a group of scientists from the US
and Switzerland published a paper in the journal PNAS, that seemed to show that it could work. In the study, a group of young adults were
tested on their ability to solve new problems. 35 of them were assigned to a control group,
and had no contact with the scientists, while another 35 had to track a square flashing
on a screen while listening to a series of sounds. They were tested on whether each square and
sound matched the ones that came before. After several weeks, the researchers tested
all of the subjects on their problem solving again – and those in the treatment group seemed
to show a huge increase in their IQ. Lots of people were excited about that paper, which has been cited more than 800 times since then. Then some scientists started pointing out
that it was seriously flawed. For one thing, there may have been what’s
known as a placebo effect, where the treatment group knew they were supposed to improve at
the tasks after training — so they did. And when other researchers tried to replicate
the results, they weren’t able to. Studies since then have shown that brain training
can have an effect on your brain, but it’s a lot more specific. One paper published in Nature in 2010 had
over 11,000 people practice tasks meant to improve their reasoning, memory, and attention,
but after six weeks, they’d only gotten better at the games themselves. Their new skills didn’t translate to other
tasks — not even similar ones. For example, even if someone practiced a card
matching game, it didn’t translate to improvements in their score on the paired-associates learning
test – a similar kind of matching test that’s used to assess memory impairment. And when scientists have compared other studies
on brain training, they’ve also generally found that it doesn’t have a significant
impact on cognition. The consensus is so strong that in 2014, 70
neuroscientists and cognitive psychologists signed a statement saying that there’s “no
compelling scientific evidence that … [brain training games] reduce or reverse cognitive
decline”. So does that mean brain training doesn’t
work at all? Well, not exactly. The issue is more how these brain training
programs are advertised. They’re wrong if they say that brain training
improves brain health overall, but that doesn’t mean it can’t be helpful in some specific
cases. In one rehab program that included skills
training, practicing things like remembering names and counting change helped patients with Alzheimer’s disease get better at those things. But “Practice Paying Your Bills!” isn’t
such an exciting-sounding video game, which might be why brain training companies aren’t
making those games. And it’s not like brain training is a terrible
thing. Unlike some other kinds of pseudoscience,
it won’t actively harm you. But these games aren’t cheap – the brain
training industry brings in over one billion dollars a year, which is a lot of money for
people to be paying for ineffective treatments. So, what can you do to protect your brain? For starters, we’re still trying to understand
the effects of aging on the brain, and what causes dementia. We know that dementia and memory loss are
related to damaged neurons in the brain, but scientists aren’t totally sure how the neurons
get damaged in the first place. So we don’t know any surefire ways to prevent
or treat memory loss. Still, research has shown that there are some
things that can help — without an expensive subscription to a brain training program. More education translates to a decreased risk
of dementia, and maintaining a healthy diet and getting lots of exercise can also help
keep the aging brain healthy. Scientists might eventually develop an easy,
fun way to protect your brain and make you smarter — but these brain training games
aren’t going to do it. Thanks for watching this memory compilation. If you’ve ever liked a SciShow video or
left us a thought-provoking comment, you’ve definitely added to our great SciShow memories
this year. Thank you! If you have an idea for a compilation of videos
you’d like to see, let us know in the comments below, and if you just want to continue getting
smarter with us, go to YouTube.com/scishow and subscribe.


  1. Tim Tian

    January 6, 2017 at 7:22 am

    12:50 isn't it pronounced lo-ky, not lo-si?

  2. Fighting4Exp

    January 12, 2017 at 8:07 am

    The only way I remembered how to spell the word Because when I was younger was to say.

  3. Mikey Champ

    January 16, 2017 at 2:48 am

    flowers smell bad

  4. blob is cute

    January 24, 2017 at 6:18 am

    is it weird that i remember manyy things frm my childhood? (be4 i was 3)

  5. Walter Suggs Jr.

    January 26, 2017 at 5:52 pm

    a compilation video about the science of marijuana and a compilation video on the science of space and the universe

  6. DaBlondDude

    January 29, 2017 at 12:06 am

    Is there a way to reprogram odor memory associations? specifically, in the case where it can be linked to childhood trauma, for example

  7. paranormal lazivity

    February 6, 2017 at 12:35 am

    my brain remember things by picturing stuff for example if i want to remember a paragraph i picture ut so when i am telling it i see the picture of that paragraph word by word line by line

  8. Victor Contreras

    February 22, 2017 at 11:28 pm

    Hey, Perro its pronounced with a hard "r", like immitating the sound of a motorbike. Great vids.

  9. adam seekell

    March 16, 2017 at 6:40 pm

    i can remember things i did from when i was like 1 1/2. my parents confirmed i was a little over a year old.

  10. Da Coda

    March 28, 2017 at 3:19 am

    Can you guys cite your references so I can do a follow up of your information?

  11. sle

    April 2, 2017 at 9:53 am

    you know what i think of when i smell bacon?


  12. Roy Fedeson

    April 28, 2017 at 2:25 am

    Hank, how many shirts do you have? I've never seen you with the same one twice.

  13. Vixon Azaria

    June 10, 2017 at 10:45 pm

    Would having bi-polar, a memory and emotional condition, afflict your sense of smell?

  14. Critter Cosner

    June 12, 2017 at 12:48 am

    Back when I was in school it was pizza not nachos…

  15. Empedocles449

    June 13, 2017 at 3:40 pm

    I learned about H.M. in university.
    Mystery unlocked.

  16. Annabeth Chase

    July 8, 2017 at 5:30 am

    Actually i remember most of the stuff before three including being in my mothers womb

  17. VampireSpork

    September 5, 2017 at 5:01 pm

    you guys are lovely! Science is something that i always loved, but almost never understood 😀 Such a paradox, eh? Now i have explanation to some things that i have wondered about for years 🙂 thank you

  18. John Rich

    September 23, 2017 at 7:34 pm

    Hello SciShow, I think this video needs an update. There have been studies stating that reading and physical exercises help the brain too.

  19. KendrixTermina

    September 27, 2017 at 7:42 am

    I'm 23 and I still make frequent use of the Alphabet Song.

  20. Dylan vd Merwe

    October 1, 2017 at 8:06 pm

    why do we get angry

  21. Sigmaairav

    October 13, 2017 at 3:33 pm

    Mnemonics always failed to help me recall or remember anything. I could never memorize them no matter what form they took nor could I store or create memories of their intended subjects most of the time. Even when partially memorized, I couldn't ever make the connection between the mnemonics and their subject. One memory would be replaced by the other rather than them coexisting as mutually interchangeable memories associated with one another. Because of this, I could never understand how other people find mnemonics helpful for memorizing data.

    The only Mnemonic I remember is FACE referring to music read on a music sheet however I cannot associate that to the locations of the notes on the musical staff nor can I read sheet music at all. Mnemonics are just another confusing thing to be ingrained that make things more complicated than they initially were in my experience. Maybe that is an attribute of my autism spectrum disorder but I am unsure.

    Additionally, all memorization tricks described in this video don't work for me. They are all too complicated for me to form a memory of. My memory formation is simplistic and doesn't require two entirely different things to be associated with one another to maintain a memory.

    I need simple repetition and exposure to data. Like with that perro example of a dog, I wouldn't be able to use that pear with the dog as my brain would find it unnecessary to form a relationship between the unrelated subjects. Instead, all I would need is the picture of the dog, the word perro under it labeled Spanish and the word dog under that labeled as English. And then I would require constant exposure to hearing people referring to a dog in Spanish as perro for the memory to stick.

    Furthermore, regarding studying in school, I couldn't do so. Every attempt I made at studying had the opposite effect. I would loose the information as I actively attempted to remember it and I would consistently be unable to use that information to pass a test. However, I always aced my tests when I refused to study at all whatsoever. But, once I used the information to be recalled for use on a test, I would forget that information as if the data I had used was stored as a temporary file that was deleted upon being recalled. This was the case for the most part however rarely some information bits managed to be stored permanently.

    The more interested I am in something, the more likely my memory of that something will be ingrained in me indefinitely. This is not the case with numbers, I have immense troubles remembering even the simplest of math problems such as simple multiplication in 4's.

    I remember visual and audio information much better than anything else like a specific bird species chirping, a brightly moonlit night sky, and non lyrical music. With music, I can't read sheet music but I can reproduce what I hear by sound memory alone.

    I have troubles remembering names and faces and associating the two with each other. It takes me at least ten times repeated exposure to someone new for me to remember their names with the face and can only remember them as one entity rather than two in relation to each other. How well I can remember a person also depends on their charismatic influence on my psyche. I can recognize a person better by their voice than their face in many cases.

    Data I collect regarding science, space, psychology, video games, music, and physics seem to be more readily absorbed and stored permanently in my memory than other data however specific number details I don't recall well as I have previously mentioned…I remember more of the general concepts than more complex nitty gritty details.

    I think that sums up how my brain works regarding memories, storage of memories, and recollection of memories. If anyone bothered to read this wall of text, glad I maintained your interest. 🙂

  22. BandanaDrummer95

    October 25, 2017 at 8:37 am

    PNAS… if I remember, that's Papers Not Accepted to Science (another journal).

  23. Kai Henningsen

    November 1, 2017 at 12:10 pm

    I seem to be strange.
    The only old episodic memories I can recall ever having seem to have been completely unconnected to smells, and in fact I can't recall a smell ever triggering an episodic memory, though I'm sure it must have happened _sometimes_.
    Furthermore, I only really recall one mnemonic, and as far as I can tell, I've had very little actual use out of it – it's the good old (and not updated since maybe 1975 or so) "Oh Be A Fine Girl, Kiss Me" listing (the older) stellar classes.
    I'm sure there were more, but they seem to have gone beyond the recall wall, which does not seem to be (for me) located at any specific age – the older episodic memories get, the harder they are to recall, with the oldest ever from before I could walk, one at 4½, and then slowly starting to get more.
    But back to the original point, I very, very rarely, if ever, use mnemonics for learning.
    Then again, I have serious trouble remembering unconnected facts – there's a reason geography was always one of my worst subjects: there was no connective tissue behind all those facts one was supposed to learn, whereas topics like math were all about the connective tissue (I loved math).
    Of course, a different style of teaching geography might have avoided that problem.

  24. Existenceisillusion

    November 2, 2017 at 10:50 am

    What can really help in memorizing Maxwell's equations is must realizing their awesomeness! (despite being classical)

  25. кιℓℓυʍιηαтι

    November 3, 2017 at 9:48 pm

    I´m 25 and I can remember many things from my early childhood, for example how I tried (and succeeded! ^^) walking the first time.

  26. Apiwat Chantawibul

    November 4, 2017 at 4:41 pm

    When scent of glue takes you back to your childhood… It makes me suspicious of your pasts.

  27. dannyoman

    November 30, 2017 at 4:19 am

    Sugared almonds my auntie liked allways made me think she was watching over me when I just got a whiff from nowhere

  28. Jason Theobald

    December 5, 2017 at 7:52 pm

    Thanks guys. I love yall

  29. John King

    December 6, 2017 at 9:29 am

    Its vids like these makes me realize how normal i am not

  30. FluffyFractalshard

    December 12, 2017 at 1:07 am

    i probably wont remeber much of this cause im high af

  31. Epistemologically

    January 12, 2018 at 10:10 am

    I love your cheap jokes scishow! 😀

  32. Sam Kelly

    January 21, 2018 at 9:11 pm

    The one I learnt for the planets in school was My Very Early Man Just Showed Us Nine Planets (pluto was still a planet then)

  33. blackkittyfreak

    January 25, 2018 at 6:12 am

    The way that girl kept pronouncing "mnemonic" as "pneumonic" was so distracting that I barely understood anything she said.

  34. Nicolai Veliki

    February 12, 2018 at 7:09 am

    Play Pen&Paper role-playing games

  35. Coolslaw 11;1

    February 14, 2018 at 5:32 am

    comment, i subed

  36. jacksparrowismydaddy

    February 21, 2018 at 2:43 pm

    but doesn't reading help produce neurons thus helping to train your brain?

  37. Jordan Wanberg

    February 23, 2018 at 7:28 pm

    I can remember part of my 1st birthday. I got Thomas the tank engine toys.

  38. 9elypses

    March 8, 2018 at 8:46 am

    Okay but here's the thing. I'm 23 and the only memory I have from before I was 4 is actually of my first birthday party. When I was 17 I turned to my mom one day and gave her a freakishly detailed description of about 2 minutes from that day. There were no pictures taken but I described where everyone in the room was including what some of them were wearing right down to the blue dress on my 2 month old cousin and I asked my mom why everyone clapped and cheered when I stuck my thumb in the cake. She was speechless. I have no idea what made me remember it in the first place but ever since it's been clear as day in my mind and often I relive those 2 minutes as part of my dreams and I'm aware that I'm dreaming when I start reliving that event.

  39. Marleigh

    March 17, 2018 at 7:35 pm

    Dang I really need to start on creating my mind palace

  40. Annie Arvidson

    April 1, 2018 at 2:32 am

    How is memory stored?

  41. Wilson Xi

    April 12, 2018 at 3:03 pm

    when i smell glue i dont remember kindergarten instead i remember the last time me and my amigos smelt glue and got high

  42. TMB247

    May 16, 2018 at 6:04 am

    Crap inserted into Earlobes makes you smarter and improves memory… and then there are Tats … that is like adding a Supercharger. Nose Rings just lead you to Knowledge.
    It is all True! And Man Made Global Warming can only be cured by Algore … just ask Obama, he and Algore have similar Prizes!

  43. Ernesto Berger

    May 27, 2018 at 9:27 pm

    What bugs me is that people talk about Molaison without saying if his surgery was successful in its original intent, It was by the way.

  44. Dave B

    June 10, 2018 at 9:39 pm

    The kids that ate the paste all ended up being screw ups. I thought that was gross because everyone stuck their fingers in it.

  45. Dave B

    June 10, 2018 at 9:42 pm

    The best smell is girly perfume on leather.

  46. SilkTouchGamer

    July 9, 2018 at 8:32 pm

    I'm 15 and I can remember IN DETAIL my 5th 6th 7th and 8th birthday parties. I can also remember the apartment I lived in until I was 1 year old. I also have memories of pretty much EVERY moment in my life. It clearly doesn't happen to everyone. If this means that I'm a weirdo who needs to be experimented on you can contact me at [email protected] ; Otherwise Can someone explain this to me?

  47. EuphorierMusic

    July 19, 2018 at 8:15 pm


  48. Lucas Nascimento

    July 27, 2018 at 11:38 pm

    00:22 how smells trigger memories?
    03:52 how do you make memories?
    10:09 leaning mnemonics: can you really hack your memory?
    14:19 can you really train your brain?

  49. Jessikerz

    September 22, 2018 at 2:17 am

    14:01 that RECESS reference though!

  50. Keerthana Satheesh

    October 7, 2018 at 4:02 pm

    For a long time I observed that I could remember the sensation of me as a three year old by smelling fresh plastic and that I could remember the time I had no friends through the smell of washed clothes. I asked others if the same happened to them and they told no. So I thought it was just a weird yet special ability of mine.

  51. No Ash No Smoke

    October 15, 2018 at 4:40 am

    Can't smell pumpkin bread without thinking about watching power Rangers and eating pumpkin bread as a kid

  52. Zoophilia Consultant

    October 31, 2018 at 9:42 pm

    " what happened to that kid who ate all that glue" lol. that's why I have facebook friends

  53. Apollo

    November 24, 2018 at 4:25 am

    When she was talking about Mnemonics and was listing off a bunch of them before she said Mnemonics my brain screamed THE MITOCHONDRIA IS THE POWERHOUSE OF THE CELL

  54. Jake Davies

    November 27, 2018 at 4:50 am

    Does sci show really make you smarter or does it just make you better at sci show 😉

  55. Kyle Campbell

    December 6, 2018 at 4:00 pm

    Nine pizzas lol

  56. Alanna Benson

    December 7, 2018 at 5:19 am

    Michael, you pronounce Toronto correctly <3

  57. Reyes Lerma

    December 18, 2018 at 4:15 pm

    No, it's "My Very Energetic Mother Just Server Us Nine Pizzas"

  58. Thierry Ko

    December 27, 2018 at 9:08 pm

    Michael: For starters-
    Me: Always choose the water starter… wait, wrong kinda starter, nvm.

  59. Natanael 809.

    January 2, 2019 at 1:44 pm

    That’s no how you say dog 🐕 perrrrro

  60. Dennis O'Brien

    January 13, 2019 at 11:49 am

    "Mnemonics" doesn't have a "U". It's not pneumonics like pneumonia.

  61. G Blake

    January 20, 2019 at 7:02 pm

    I was run over by a car when I was 2 years old – almost 3. I have vivid memories of the hospital and the pain and my parents there. I don’t think I’m special. I suspect that intense events – extreme incidents – are different and don’t apply to childhood amnesia

  62. Sophie Dockx

    March 8, 2019 at 11:11 pm

    "Memories are winged potatoes. They make crackling noises as they excrete their characteristic orange metallic foam." (Morgan Freeman).

  63. Kay B83

    April 3, 2019 at 3:55 am

    My first thought was if this affects people who don't "sense scents" or don't "smell things" I wonder if they still get scent triggered memories, but are just unaware that that is what it is…

  64. Kay B83

    April 3, 2019 at 3:59 am

    I want to ask Mayim Bialik neuroscience questions…

  65. Kay B83

    April 3, 2019 at 4:05 am

    Every time I re-watch the amnesia one from "Mr. Pleasant Voice" I have deja vu… oh yeah I watched it before and that other time too…

  66. Kay B83

    April 3, 2019 at 4:06 am

    Ms. Science Lady could pass for Mayim Bialik's sibling

  67. Braden Bogdan

    April 23, 2019 at 7:54 pm

    Get this: If you were born in the year 1980 and you want to know how old you are, in the 21st century, an easy way is math! Since you were born 20 years ago in the year 2000, the year can be split into two parts; 20 and 00. Add the two together and the sum of the two determines your age! For example: I want to know how old I am in the year 2034. Split up the four digits as 20 + 34 and the sum equals 54. Wow, eh??? Amazingly my mind fished out this shortcut out of the blue! So if you were born in 1980 (as I was), the math is very simple: 20 + XX = AGE! Thanks for the awesome work you all do!!! Also: the more you learn, the more you'll realize! 🇨🇦

  68. The Duder

    April 27, 2019 at 12:26 pm

    Caused by random file storage/deletion.
    We should run defrag.exe at around age 9, then once more around age 50.
    Chdsk for bad clusters.
    And if all else fails, reboot; fdisk; delete partition; create DOS partition; set active partition; format and reinstall OS.

    Sorry. Bad Windows 95 flashback.
    Stupid loose power cord. lol
    Yes boys and girls. There once was a time that if your computer suddenly lost power, you were not starting it back up without putting in some work. lol

  69. bkbug

    May 6, 2019 at 3:26 am

    How do we know mice have memories?

  70. Trebor Ironwolfe

    May 7, 2019 at 1:58 am

    ÐэєP ŧĦðųĢĦŧş.. ßy Ţяэß©
    If the I/O interface (keyboard/mouse/display) on our computer suddenly lost connection while watching this video, how would we know if it was still playing? What if the display actually conked out on my computer just now as I am typing this.. how would I know if my keyboard or mouse were still working? If they weren't, then how would anyone else even know I typed this?

  71. Datsenko

    May 8, 2019 at 7:03 am

    Should stop sniffing glue…

  72. Luke Visinoni

    May 16, 2019 at 11:53 pm

    I can't figure out why that Olivia chick is attractive. She shouldn't be but she is. Weird.

  73. Combat King 0

    May 23, 2019 at 10:28 pm

    I'd forgotten I'd already watched this video.

  74. Bucyrus Erie

    May 26, 2019 at 10:38 pm

    After watching this it makes me wonder if there is a way to upload the brain to a computer, memories and personality. In affect a way to live for indefinitely, I know that this idea may spark a "debate"

  75. Ernest Rhoads

    May 28, 2019 at 5:12 am

    The Gothic Cathedrals of Europe were built using large cranes
    powered by flywheel engines (mass in motion) with large men
    in massive barrels; that were turned on their sides to form a
    type of treadmill: totally predating the modern skyscrapers!
    Please provide a video describing the forgotten engine:
    The Flywheel Engine.

  76. meteor09

    May 29, 2019 at 3:44 am

    I could use that "Practice Paying your Bills" game…

  77. xXxpockyParadoxXx

    May 29, 2019 at 11:14 pm

    Is there a possibility of at least minor exceptions to childhood amnesia wherein an adult can recall at least a few episodic memories from infancy? I am 22 and have a close family that moved a lot across western america especially during infancy and adolescence; so when my parents talk about certain houses or people i have a relatively good time frame of their own memories. That being said i have at least a dozen relatively vivid memories of places and people i could have only interacted with at infancy (none before 1 and a half years old but many from 1 and a half to 4 years of age). Could it be some misattributed memories being influenced by my parents stories or can some people recall a handful of early childhood memories?

  78. Bob Smith

    June 1, 2019 at 11:30 pm

    >.> i know this is late but I spotted the cast from Recess in this and omg =w=

  79. HRD Heather 77

    June 5, 2019 at 5:38 pm

    this show rocks! I love sci-show and sci show psych. the best science channel out there on you tube

  80. Charli Star

    June 9, 2019 at 11:17 pm

    Poor Pluto being left out in your Mnemonic section!! Interestingly… different languages, use different versions of mnemonics…
    Here in the Uk, when I was at school for colours we used:

    And for the Planets we used:


  81. Matthew Harris-Levesque

    June 18, 2019 at 1:50 am

    10:42 – Mary Vacuumed Every Monster. Just Stand Up Now Please.
    (Yes, when I grew up Pluto was still a planet!)

    This line came from a record – Though I can't seem to find any recordings from it.
    It also had a song about the water cycle informing me that the water I drink today was once drank by kings and dinosaurs. And in other songs predicting that one day we would all live on giant wheels in space…. Ah, Memories….

  82. Michael Miller

    June 30, 2019 at 12:33 am

    I CAN remember some things from being a baby though.

  83. Fantomp

    July 1, 2019 at 12:04 am

    The one about the months sounded familiar even though I never heard it

  84. Bob Langill

    July 1, 2019 at 5:42 am

    The video on Childhood Amnesia states the EVERYONE experiences it. Both Salvador Dali and Ray Bradbury claimed to remember the experience of being born.

  85. Helium Valentine

    July 2, 2019 at 5:40 pm

    The mice remembered more from their mouse childhoods?
    How'd they come to that conclusion, an interview?

  86. surfinmuso

    July 6, 2019 at 10:47 am

    The "science" of memory. That is hilarious. Science has no clue how memory operates.

  87. Dan Rowley

    July 17, 2019 at 9:12 pm

    The number 1 reason why most people feel like crap…. dehydration. We think…. coffee, pop, tea etc. etc. will see us through. That is not water, it's a beverage which contains water. Number 1 thing Americans don't do, or very little of .. exercise. When you power walk, do cardio, lift iron what do you intake? Oxygen! What does your brain crave? Oxygen & sugar uptake.. to name 2! What does your brain highly desire to stave off dementia…. sugar & oxygen. To name 2. Gardening & slow walking is better than a kick in the teeth, but your brain in not getting enough oxygen worth squat! Think an everyday fit person has the lung capacity of a marathon runner? Doubt it. Who has more oxygen saturation of the brain?

  88. Kayla Hughes

    July 20, 2019 at 1:08 am

    is my bad sense of smell why my memory is bad then? smells dont evoke memories for me, like, ever. i've never experienced that kind of reminder

  89. Bruce Wayne

    July 20, 2019 at 1:00 pm

    The mnemonic I used for sine, cosine, and tangent was

  90. Josh Wilson

    August 13, 2019 at 2:34 am

    Am I the only wondering how the were able to tell how they could tell if mouse remembered more or less?

  91. Patrick Thomas

    August 14, 2019 at 10:44 am

    Hey Waldo….are you still trying to make me believe things that aren't actually proven…..????????????

  92. CloudsGirl7

    August 18, 2019 at 4:43 am

    Oh, they changed the planets mnemonic to serve nachos – I've known the original "My Very Educated Mother Just Served Us Nine Pickles" for years, and after accepting Pluto's 'demotion' I wondered how this would be changed to fit that. (I came up with 'noodles' for Neptune, myself.) Then it made me think about "Oh Be A Fine Guy/Girl, Kiss Me", also used in astronomy.

    A bit off-topic, but still.

  93. grandpa

    August 19, 2019 at 7:56 am

    when i was a kid i told myself once "i will remember this" but i don't remember what i was telling myself to remember, only remembering myself to remember

  94. Max R. MaMint

    September 8, 2019 at 10:32 am

    She has something hanging out of her nose.

  95. Kamil118

    September 9, 2019 at 12:08 am

    Excuse me, but I'm 19 and I remember some stuff from when I was 3

  96. James P

    September 10, 2019 at 2:43 pm

    I can still remember events when I was 1. Seems to freak out (or shock) my parents… for some reason. :/

  97. Stephen Savage

    September 16, 2019 at 10:51 pm

    I need to know how we are able to remember so many lyrics from so many artists, please help me understand

  98. Curt Carson

    September 19, 2019 at 9:16 pm

    As someone who's had 3 head injuries leading to minor-moderate retrograde amnesia, and minor anterograde amnesia this episode hit close to home with Molaison, I've never had it as bad as he did to any magnitude, but I'm curious about my biggest issues, which seem to be with unconsciously "putting 2 and 2 together" or just recalling things mainly when it comes to stories, life events, movie plots, social drama, gossip, etc, and having that "Aha!" moment or remembering declarative/anecdotal moments in life without a trigger to "spark" the memory, which is still there and formed, but I couldn't get to the right neural pathway on my own without a close enough "trigger" to reach that memory, especially for recent events
    I've done my own research and asked my doctors but I've just been told "this is usual" or "this often happens to people with TBIs" (traumatic brain injuries) and I haven't gotten any clear answers to my memory recall issue
    I still seem to retain the whole memory and relevant info surrounding that memory that I couldn't recall until the initial memory was triggered
    If you guys could do a story on that it'd be fantastic and much appreciated as it seems you have access to more people in such communities and can communicate such ideas in easier to understand ways than I can
    I have a small degree in psychology but am aware I've only broken the surface and know nothing of the physical causes that might be present

  99. Toni O'Toole

    September 27, 2019 at 9:52 am

    I have many memories I wish I could just delete.

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